Cannabidiol (CBD)

Treatment of Anxiety

CBD is known to provide excellent benefits for anxiety while it does not produce the mind-altering effects such as euphoria that is associated with THC. In fact, CBD in combination with THC may reduce THC-induced anxiety.


Links to other Pertinent Educational Pages:

Links to ALL Marijuana Educational Pages



Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol (CBD) – Introduction

Cannabidiol (CBD) – Clinical Use and Dosing

Cannabidiol (CBD) – Treatment of Addiction

Cannabidiol (CBD) – Drug Actions & Interactions



The medical information on this site is provided as a resource for information only, and is not to be used or relied upon for any diagnostic or treatment purposes and is not intended to create any patient-physician relationship.  Readers are advised to seek professional guidance regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their medical concerns.


Key to Links:

Grey text – handout

Red text – another page on this website

Blue text – Journal publication


Cannabidiol (CBD) – Treatment of Anxiety

The first human study of CBD’s anxiolytic effects was published in 1982 when it was identified that the increased anxiety that followed the use of THC was significantly reduced with the simultaneous use of CBD. Since then, a number of publications support the belief that CBD reduces the THC-related side effect of anxiety. A review article published in 2012 looked at the animal and human volunteer-based literature published in English, Portuguese and Spanish that included review articles and book chapters identified an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. In most of these studies oral doses of CBD between 300-600 mg/day were used. CBD has been reported to be safe and well-tolerated in doses up to 1,500 mg/day.

Unfortunately, recent data provide very mixed support for the effectiveness of CBD among individuals with anxiety disorders but do suggest that CBD may be more effective among individuals with less severe anxiety.

Among healthy volunteers, recent literature mostly does not support the effectiveness of CBD for reducing experimentally induced anxiety. However, it is important to note that the timing of taking CBD  and testing varied substantially across published studies. Whereas peak blood levels typically occur 2–3 hours after taking CBD , one study conducted their stress induction 1 hour following medication administration and in another the stress-induction task took place 5.5 hours after drug administration.  As such, it is difficult to determine whether the findings in these studies are due to poor study design rather than to a true lack of anxiolytic effects of CBD.

Additionally, CBD dosing varied substantially across the studies, from 150 and 600mg doses but only one other study tested a 300mg dose.  So, the dose-response relationship between CBD and anxiety remains poorly understood.



Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

Early evidence came from the investigation of CBD in experimentally induced anxiety in healthy volunteers using a model of simulated public speaking (SPS). Self-rated scales and physiological measures of anxiety (heart rate, blood pressure, sweating) after a 300 mg dose of CBD reveals effectiveness of CBD. The SPS test is a good model of anxiety for assessing social anxiety disorder (SAD) because the fear of speaking in public is considered a central feature in SAD and CBD has been shown to reduce anxiety in patients with SAD. A small study published in 2011 using a dose of 600mg CBD in patients with SAD revealed CBD to be helpful in reducing anxiety.


General Anxiety Disorder

A recent 2019 publication evaluating 72 patients regarding the effects of CBD on anxiety and sleep  prescribed for 3 months provides good evidence of benefit. The benefits for anxiety were evident by the end of the 1st month and persisted for the 3 month study period in about 80% of patients. Similar benefits were found for sleep but there was some fluctation of benefit over the 3 months. About 20% of patients experienced worsening of anxiety and/or sleep. Doses engaged were mostly 25 mg/day, dosed in the morning for anxiety-dominant symptoms or at bedtime for insomnia-dominant symptoms. Doses ranged from once daily dosing to dosing 3x/day with ranges from 25 mg/day up to 175 mg/day.


It was noted in this study that the effectiveness of lower doses of CBD compared favorably with other studies engaging higher doses of 300-600 mg/day, even up to 1500 mg/day which were employed and tolerated. This is consistent with recent research demonstrating biphasic dosing responses with cannabis products, meaning that sometimes lower doses are more effective for some symptoms than higher doses. One limitation of this study was a lack of breadown in the types of anxiety being treated.


Panic Disorder

A 2017 publication presented CBD as a promising drug for the treatment of panic disorder. However, they noted that additional research is clearly needed to clarify the specific mechanism of action of CBD and identify the ideal safe therapeutic doses.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with symptoms that include including the re-experiencing of traumatic events through intrusive memories and nightmares, avoidance of related distressing triggers, and alterations in mood, level of arousal, and cognition. Psychotherapy is the conventional first-line treatment for PTSD, while various psychiatric medications including antidepressants and antianxiety medications are also used with limited success.


Experimental evidence supports the benefit of both cannabis and CBD for PTSD. CBD helps to regulate the negative emotional memory associated with PTSD by reducing fear-associated memory acquisition. CBD also stops anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression, although it has little effect on the alteration of NREM sleep, possibly due to its anxiolytic effect rather than through a direct regulation of sleep mechanisms. This is significant in PTSD patients who often complain of having sleep disturbances, including nightmares (associated with REM) and insomnia.


Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A Case Series – 2019

To date, there is little human research that evaluates the clinical benefits of CBD for PTSD. However, a preliminary study published in 2019 evaluated 11 patients with PTSD over a period of 8 weeks. Four patients received CBD as an oral capsule only, one patient only received CBD in the form of an oral liquid spray and 6 patients received both forms of CBD either concurrently or sequentially over the course of the study. The choice of the form of CBD used (capsule vs. liquid spray) was determined by provider and patient preference.

Patients were instructed to take 25 mg capsules of CBD once or twice per day based on severity of symptoms. In addition, patients were provided a liquid CBD administered as sprays from a spray bottle. The liquid contained about 1.5 mg of CBD per spray. The median starting oral capsular dose was 25 mg per day (range: 25–100 mg) and the median dose of liquid CBD given throughout the study was 9 mg per day (range: 1–16). The mean total starting dose of CBD (liquid or capsular or both) was 33 mg/day.


Treatment was provided to maximize PTSD symptom reduction, which directly correlated with dose, and most patients increased their dose of CBD during the study. At the conclusion of the study after 8 weeks, the mean total dose of CBD used was 48 mg (range: 2–100).


After 4 weeks of treatment, 91% of the patients reported a decrease in their symptoms of PTSD, including decreased anxiety, improved focus, and improved mood. After 8 weeks of treatment with CBD, 73% of the patients reported a further decrease in PTSD symptoms from their follow-up appointment 4 weeks earlier. 50% of the patients reported reduction in their nightmares and 38% reported improved quality of sleep. Four patients continued to take CBD for 36 weeks or more and all experienced long-term sustained decreases in their PTSD symptoms.


While this was a small study, it does suggest that PTSD symptoms may be effectively treated with CBD at doses of 25-100 mg/day.


Dosing of CBD

Specific dosing of CBD needs to be guided individually, taking into account desired therapeutic benefits related to specific symptoms and disease processes as well as the potential for drug-drug interactions with other prescribed medications. Dosing should be guided by a physician knowledgeable about cannabis and cannabis-based products. CBD suppresses the “high” caused by THC when provided at an 8:1 CBD:THC ratio.


Incidentally, due to lack of government regulation and oversight, CBD products sold online are often mislabeled regarding constituents, qualitatively and quantitatively. Caution is necessary when purchasing CBD products, including confirmation of product quality by obtaining 3rd party chemical analyses that evaluate product contents. Without this information, predicting accurate dosing from a product becomes very unreliable. Legitimate manufacturers provide these chemical analyses on demand and will often have them available on their websites.


CBD can be effective at a very wide range of dosages. It has been found that very low doses can have a very profound impact, from as little as 2.5 mg of CBD daily depending on method of delivery. Doses up to hundreds of milligrams have also been used safely and effectively. In a study that evaluated daily oral doses of 700mg, CBD was found to be nontoxic and other studies have reported CBD doses up to 1500mg/day to be safe. It has also been reported that cannabinoids may have a biphasic or triphasic effect, in that a low dose may provide a certain effect, but higher doses may provide different or opposite effects.


A very high dose may also not provide additional benefit over a low dose, so it’s best to start with a low dose: 2.5-5 mg of CBD initially (maybe 10 mg at the most), depending on the product and method of use. A typical starting CBD dose for most people would be a total of 10-12 mg of CBD a day, divided into 3 daily doses. If the desired effect is not achieved at a low dose, then higher doses can gradually be introduced until the therapeutic goal is achieved or side effects or expense deter further increased dosing.


The use of tinctures sublingually will provide a more rapid onset of effect but may not last as long as an oral dose. Orally administered (swallowed) CBD oil can last for four hours or more, but the onset of effects is much slower (30-90 minutes) than a tincture administered sublingually (under the tongue). Tincture dosing is generally performed with a 1 ml dropper which provides about 20 drops/ml.



National Academy of Sciences

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research


These lay-person websites appear to be good resources for exploring medical marijuana:





Epidiolex (cannabidiol)

  1. FDA approves CBD drug – Epidiolex – The Washington Post

Marinol (dronabinol)

  1. Marinol – dronabinol



Cannabidiol (CBD)- Overviews

  1. CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Pre-Review Report WHO 2017
  2. Cannabidiol – State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. – 2017 PubMed – NCBI
  3. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders – 2015
  4. A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations – 2019
  5. Applications of Cannabis Sativa L. in Food and Its Therapeutic Potential – From a Prohibited Drug to a Nutritional Supplement – 2021



CBD – Addiction

  1. Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors – A Systematic Review of the Evidence -2015
  2. Unique treatment potential of cannabidiol for the prevention of relapse to drug use – preclinical proof of principle – 2018


CBD – Anxiety

  1. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain – Clinical Implications – 2016
  2. Cannabidiol Modulates Fear Memory Formation Through Interactions with Serotonergic Transmission in the Mesolimbic System – 2016
  3. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids – 2018
  5. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders – 2017
  6. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Evidences for the Anti-panic Actions of Cannabidiol – 2017
  8. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug – 2012
  9. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients – 2011
  10. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. – PubMed – NCBI 2007
  11. Beyond the CB1 Receptor – Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation? – 2016
  12. Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology – 2018
  13. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep – A Large Case Series – 2019
  14. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain – 2019
  15. A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations – 2019
  16. Medicinal cannabis for psychiatric disorders – a clinically-focused systematic review – 2020


CBD – Interaction with THC

  1. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis – 2015
  3. Taming THC – potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects – 2011
  4. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis – 2010



CBD – Metabolites

  1. Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol – A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy – 2016


CBD – Drug-Metabolic Interactions

  1. Cannabidiol, a Major Phytocannabinoid, As a Potent Atypical Inhibitor for CYP2D6 – 2011
  2. The Effect of CYP2D6 Drug-Drug Interactions on Hydrocodone Effectiveness – 2014 
  3. Characterization of P-glycoprotein Inhibition by Major Cannabinoids from Marijuana – 2006

CBD – Pain

  1. The non-psychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an orally effective therapeutic agent in rat chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. – PubMed – NCBI 2007
  2. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders – 2015
  3. Cannabidiol Modulates Fear Memory Formation Through Interactions with Serotonergic Transmission in the Mesolimbic System – 2016
  4. Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor – 2018
  5. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. – PubMed – NCBI – 2018
  6. Synergistic attenuation of chronic pain using mu opioid and cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists – 2017
  7. Effects of Cannabidiol and a Novel Cannabidiol Analog against Tactile Allodynia in a Murine Model of Cisplatin-Induced Neuropathy – Enhanced Effects of Sub-Analgesic Doses of Morphine – 2018
  8. Plant-Based Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain – 2018


CBD – Topical

  1. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis – 2015
  2. Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD – A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial – 2019
  3. The Cannabinoids Δ8THC, CBD, and HU-308 Act via Distinct Receptors to Reduce Corneal Pain and Inflammation – 2018
  4. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders – 2020



CBD – Pharmacokinetics

  1. Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics – 2007
  2. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol – A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy 2016
  4.  A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers – 2012
  5. The effects of black pepper on the intestinal absorption and hepatic metabolism of drugs. – PubMed – NCBI – 2011
  6. Piperine-pro-nanolipospheres as a novel oral delivery system of cannabinoids: Pharmacokinetic evaluation in healthy volunteers in comparison to buc… – PubMed – NCBI – 2017
  7. A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans

CBD – Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  1. Cannabidiol Reduces Intestinal Inflammation through the Control of Neuroimmune Axis – 2011
  2. Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders – Useful Nutraceuticals? – 2020
  3. Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in colitis – A comprehensive review – 2017
  4. Cannabinoids and Inflammations of the Gut-Lung-Skin Barrier – 2021


CBD – Neurologic Disorders: Overviews

  1. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders – 2015

CBD – Neurodegenerative Disorders: Traumatic Brain Injury and CTE

  1. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders – 2015
  2. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury – 2011
  3. Endocannabinoids – A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury. – 2017
  4. Natural cannabinoids improve dopamine neurotransmission and tau and amyloid pathology in a mouse model of tauopathy. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Protein Modifications in Rat Cerebral Cortex Challenged by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion – 2018
  6. Cannabidiol Reduces Aβ-Induced Neuroinflammation and Promotes Hippocampal Neurogenesis through PPARγ Involvement – 2011
  7. Critical role of mast cells and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in the induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by marijuana cannabidiol in vivo – 2015
  8. Endocannabinoid Degradation Inhibition Improves Neurobehavioral Function, Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity, and Neuroinflammation following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – 2015
  9. Palmitoylethanolamide Reduces Neuropsychiatric Behaviors by Restoring Cortical Electrophysiological Activity in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – 2017
  10. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders – important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid? – 2013
  11. Modulation of Astrocyte Activity by Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid – 2017


Medical Marijuana – Prescribing Guidelines

  1. Simplified guideline for prescribing medical cannabinoids in primary care – Canadian Family Physician – 2018
  2. Physician Recommendation of Medical Cannabis Guidelines Calif Medical Assoc – 2011
  3. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain. Preliminary recommendationsCanadian Family Physician – 2014


Medical Marijuana – Opioids

  1. Use-of-Prescription-Pain-Medications-Among-Medical-Cannabis-Patients
  2. It is premature to expand access to medicinal cannabis in hopes of solving the US opioid crisis – 2018
  3. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  4. Patterns and correlates of medical cannabis use for pain among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Associations between medical cannabis and prescription opioid use in chronic pain patients – A preliminary cohort study – 2017
  6. The prevalence and significance of cannabis use in patients prescribed chronic opioid therapy: a review of the extant literature. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999–2010 – 2014
  9. Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis – 2017
  10. Cannabis and the Opioid Crisis – 2018
  11. Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Cannabinoid–Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain
  13. Synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid analgesics. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. FDA approves CBD drug – Epidiolex – The Washington Post
  15. Opioid transport by ATP-binding cassette transporters at the blood-brain barrier: implications for neuropsychopharmacology. – PubMed – NCBI – 2011
  16. Opioids and the Blood-Brain Barrier – A Dynamic Interaction with Consequences on Drug Disposition in Brain – 2017
  17. The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. – PubMed – NCBI – 2018
  18. Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450 Interactions. – PubMed – NCBI – 2016
  19. Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoids – 2017 Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice. 2012
  20. Pharmacogenomics of methadone maintenance treatment. – PubMed – NCBI
  21. Relationship between ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration in patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). – PubMed – NCBI- 2016
  22. Impact of ABCB1 and CYP2B6 Genetic Polymorphisms on Methadone Metabolism, Dose and Treatment Response in Patients with Opioid Addiction – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – 2014
  23. ABCB1 haplotype and OPRM1 118A > G genotype interaction in methadone maintenance treatment pharmacogenetics – 2012
  24. The opioid epidemic – a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse – 2017
  25. Morphine and the blood-brain barrier – diffusion, uptake, or efflux? – 2017
  26. Cyclosporine-inhibitable Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Transport Influences Clinical Morphine Pharmacodynamics – 2013
  27. Methadone Treatment for Pain States – 2005
  28. Cyclosporine-inhibitable Cerebral Drug Transport Does not Influence Clinical Methadone Pharmacodynamics – 2014
  29. Targeting blood–brain barrier changes during inflammatory pain – an opportunity for optimizing CNS drug delivery – 2011
  30. Targeting Transporters – Promoting Blood-Brain Barrier Repair in Response to Oxidative Stress Injury – 2015
  31. Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor – 2018

Medical Marijuana –Misc

  1. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Cannabis and cannabis extracts – greater than the sum of their parts? – 2001
  3. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. 2016 – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Cannabis-conclusions – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  6. Cannabis-chapter-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  7. Cannabis-report-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  8. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Bene ts of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?-2004
  9. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450 Interactions. – PubMed – NCBI Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoids – 2018
  13. Systematic review of systematic reviews for medical cannabinoids – 2018
  14. Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids – a systematic review – 2008
  15. Cannabimimetic effects modulated by cholinergic compounds. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Antagonism of marihuana effects by indomethacin in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids – 2004
  19. Affinity and Efficacy Studies of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A at Cannabinoid Receptor Types One and Two. – 2017
  20. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  21. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI
  22. Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
  23. Current-status-and-future-of-cannabis-research-Clin-Researcher-2015
  24. Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems – A Clinical Review – 2015
  25. Cannabis sativa L. as a Natural Drug Meeting the Criteria of a Multitarget Approach to Treatment – 2021


Medical Marijuana – Product Evaluation

  1. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018
  2. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016

Emphasis on Education


Accurate Clinic promotes patient education as the foundation of it’s medical care. In Dr. Ehlenberger’s integrative approach to patient care, including conventional and complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments, he may encourage or provide advice about the use of supplements. However, the specifics of choice of supplement, dosing and duration of treatment should be individualized through discussion with Dr. Ehlenberger. The following information and reference articles are presented to provide the reader with some of the latest research to facilitate evidence-based, informed decisions regarding the use of conventional as well as CAM treatments.


For medical-legal reasons, access to these links is limited to patients enrolled in an Accurate Clinic medical program.


Should you wish more information regarding any of the subjects listed – or not listed –  here, please contact Dr. Ehlenberger. He has literally thousands of published articles to share on hundreds of topics associated with pain management, weight loss, nutrition, addiction recovery and emergency medicine. It would take years for you to read them, as it did him.


For more information, please contact Accurate Clinic.


Supplements recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger may be purchased commercially online or at Accurate Clinic.

Please read about our statement regarding the sale of products recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger.

Accurate Supplement Prices