Marijuana (Cannabis)

Delta-10 THC (Δ-10 THC)

Delta-10 THC (Δ-10 THC) is a recently discovered and lesser-known cannabinoid that is gaining some attention as a milder version of Δ-8 THC and Δ-9 THC, and the dominant cannabinoid found in marijuana that is responsible for generating the “high” as well as other therapeutic benefits associated with the uses of marijuana.

” It’s all bathtub gin.” – Christopher Hudalla



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Definitions and Terms Related to Pain


Delta-10 THC (Δ-10 Tetrahydrocannabinol)

As marijuana laws are loosening up, the demand for cannabis products is accelerating resulting in the mass production of cannabis concentrates. Depending on how they’re produced, these concentrates can vary in purity.  This has resulted in the recent discovery of a previously unknown form of THC, Delta-10 THC (Δ-10 THC), a byproduct of manufacturing.

Hemp and marijuana (both cannabis) are legally classified as separate plants and thus are subject to separate laws. Compounds found in hemp (a plant legally defined as cannabis containing less than 0.3% THC) are legal in the U.S. Since Δ-10 THC isn’t found in cannabis at all, it falls into a legal gray area. Technically, it is legal at the federal level, unless a state has created a specific law against it and different states have different rules and regulations regarding THC and its isomers.


Chemistry of Δ-10 THC

Delta-10 THC is very similar in molecular structure to Δ-9 THC and Δ-8 THC. In the manufacturing process of distilling cannabis there is a lot of heat involved and with this, double-bond changes happen. In Δ-9 THC, the double-bond is in the ninth position. Most often, it changes into the eighth position and becomes Δ-8 THC, but if the double-bond is pushed into the tenth position, it becomes Δ-10 THC.


Δ-8 THC vs. Δ-9 THC vs. Δ-10 THC

Delta-8 THC and Delta-9 THC are known to interact with the endocannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, resulting in their pharmacologic effects. Most likely Delta-10 THC does the same. The difference between the three is likely mostly in potency where they all may produce similar effects, but one needs more than another to achieve the same experience.

Delta-9 THC is by far the most psychoactive of these compounds and is likely more potent for other therapeutic benefits and side effects as well. Research suggests that Δ-8 THC has only two-thirds or less of the potency of Δ-9 THC while others report it to be 50% less potent and in some cases 3-10 times less potent. Delta-10 THC is less potent than both of these other compounds.


Safety of Δ-10 THC

Like Δ-8 THC, the safety of Δ-10 THC use has not been established nor has the safety of vape blends. Delta-10 THC may be marketed in edible forms, as cartridges of vape blends or sprayed onto hemp flowers which are then smoked or vaped. Using Δ-10 THC is much less likely to trigger severe anxiety or paranoia compared with Δ-9 THC,  or even Δ-8 THC, so it may be safer for use. Unfortunately, there are no long term studies evaluating the safety of long term or repeated use of Δ-10 THC.

Also like Δ-8 THC, the manufacturing process for Δ-10 THC is not regulated so irresponsible manufacturers may produce products with unsafe contaminants. Caution is strongly advised regarding the use of alternative THC products. See: Δ-8 THC.


What are the Effects of Using Δ-10 THC?

Essentially, the effects of Δ-10 THC are the same but less intense compared to Δ-9 THC and Δ-8 THC. These effects potentially include psychoactive effects, reduction of pain, suppression of nausea and vomiting and stimulation of appetite.


Psychoactive Effects

The psychoactive effects experienced with Δ-10 THC are considered mild, described as slightly euphoric, mentally stimulating and energizing. Anxiety and paranoia are generally absent.



Another THC variant that is getting attention is “THC-O,” which is another cannabinoid, THC-O-acetate, the acetate ester of THC. This compound is now popping up in gummies and vapes. THC-O does not occur naturally in cannabis plants. Currently there are no human studies on the effects or safety of acetylated THC and even less is known about THC-O than about Δ-8 THC. As such it is not recommended at this time to take THC-O. in any form.


National Academy of Sciences

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

This website appears to be good resource for exploring medical marijuana.




Delta-8 THC – Overviews

  1. Delta-8-THCDelta-9-THC’s nicer younger sibling? – 2022
  2. Consumer Experiences with Delta-8-THC Medical Use, Pharmaceutical Substitution, and Comparisons with Delta-9-THC – PubMed 2022
  3. Human skin permeation of Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol – PubMed – 2004



Cannabinoids – Pain

  1. Association of Cannabinoid Administration With Experimental Pain in Healthy Adults – 2018
  2. Effects of Cannabinoid Administration for Pain – A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression – 2019
  3. Cannabis-based medicines and the perioperative physician – 2019
  4. Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults – 2018
  5. Cannabinoids in the Descending Pain Modulatory Circuit- Role in Inflammation – 2020
  6. Current Evidence of Cannabinoid-Based Analgesia Obtained in Preclinical and Human Experimental Settings – PubMed – 2018
  7. Role of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis-Mediated Analgesia in Rats – PubMed – 2019
  8. Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain – An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science – 2018
  9. The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin the Biological Benefits of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain and Inflammation – PubMed – 2020
  10. Cannabis sativa L. an
    d Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids – Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer – 2018
  11. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment – 2018
  12. Cannabinoid Formulations and Delivery Systems – Current and Future Options to Treat Pain – 2021


CBD – Interaction with THC

  1. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis – 2015
  3. Taming THC – potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects – 2011
  4. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI



Cannabinoids: Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV):

  1. The phytocannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5-HT1A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects – 2015


Medical Marijuana –Misc

  1. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Cannabis and cannabis extracts – greater than the sum of their parts? – 2001
  3. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. 2016 – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Cannabis-conclusions – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  6. Cannabis-chapter-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  7. Cannabis-report-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  8. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Bene ts of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?-2004
  9. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450 Interactions. – PubMed – NCBI Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoids – 2018
  13. Systematic review of systematic reviews for medical cannabinoids – 2018
  14. Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids – a systematic review – 2008
  15. Cannabimimetic effects modulated by cholinergic compounds. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Antagonism of marihuana effects by indomethacin in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids – 2004
  19. Affinity and Efficacy Studies of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A at Cannabinoid Receptor Types One and Two. – 2017
  20. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  21. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI
  22. Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
  23. Current-status-and-future-of-cannabis-research-Clin-Researcher-2015
  24. Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems – A Clinical Review – 2015
  25. Cannabis Use in Patients with Fibromyalgia – Effect on Symptoms Relief and Health-Related Quality of Life – 2011
  26. Weighing the Benefits and Risks of Medical Marijuana Use – A Brief Review – 2018
  27. A Marijuana-Drug Interaction Primer – Precipitants, Pharmacology, and Pharmacokinetics – 2019
  28. Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD – A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial – 2019
  29. Drug interactions with cannabinoids – 2020
  30. The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men – A randomised controlled trial – 2019
  31. Novel approaches and current challenges with targeting the endocannabinoid system – 2020
  32. Herbal Preparations of Medical Cannabis – A Vademecum for Prescribing Doctors – 2020
  33. Cannabis is associated with clinical but not endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis – A randomized controlled trial – 2020
  34. Practical Strategies Using Medical Cannabis to Reduce Harms Associated With Long Term Opioid Use in Chronic Pain – 2021
  35. Endocannabinoid Levels in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Correlate With Clinical Parameters and Are Affected by Cannabis Consumption – 2021
  36. The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids – 2018


Medical Marijuana – Product Evaluation

  1. Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cannabis and cannabis products – 2009
  2. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018
  3. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  4. Cannabinoid, Terpene, and Heavy Metal Analysis of 29 Over-the-Counter Commercial Veterinary Hemp Supplements – 2020

Emphasis on Education


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