LA Marijuana Products:


The tinctures are extracts of the marijuana plant that contain many pharmacologically active constituents including cannabinoids, THC, CBD and others and terpenes, the aromatic compounds that also contribute to the particular smell and taste of marijuana products. They are generally recommended as the entry level product for marijuana-based therapeutics.


LA Marijuana Products

LA Marijuana Products: Introductory Principles

LA Marijuana Products: Tinctures

LA Marijuana Products: Vape Cartridges & Vaporizers

LA Marijuana Products: Ilera Vape Formulations

LA Marijuana Products: RSO Formulations

LA Marijuana Products: Flower Products

LA Marijuana Products: Edible Products

LA Marijuana Products: Topical Products


Links to other Pertinent Educational Pages:

Links to ALL Marijuana Educational Pages

For those interested in pursuing a trial of therapy with cannabis-based products,  first read:

Medical Marijuana  – Marijuana Use Introduction

Marijuana (Cannabis) – Potential for Harm 

Marijuana (Cannabis) – Side Effects and Drug Interactions

Medical Marijuana – Cannabinoids and Opioids


Marijuana Pharmacies/Dispensaries in Louisiana:

Marijuana Pharmacies



The medical information on this site is provided as a resource for information only, and is not to be used or relied upon for any diagnostic or treatment purposes and is not intended to create any patient-physician relationship.  Readers are advised to seek professional medical guidance regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their medical concerns.


Key to Links:

Grey text – handout

Red text – another page on this website

Blue text – Journal publication

Oral Liquid Tinctures

Most people inexperienced with the use of medical marijuana start with the oral liquid tinctures because they have the advantage of more precise dosing control compared with vaping. Tinctures are oil or alcohol based products with marijuana extracts dissolved in them. Both tinctures, the balanced THC/CBD and the THC without CBD, are “full spectrum” and contain additional cannabinoids including cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabinol (CBN), Canbachromene (CBC), terpenes and flavonoids. Again, as noted above, the specifics of which of these constituents and their amounts are proprietary and not disclosed to either the pharmacist or recommending physician..


The tinctures are identified by the total content of the THC and/or CBD in the product, so it is important to understand this since it does not represent the dose. The tincture bottles are 30 ml bottles and each dropperful holds approximately 1 ml, so:

  • A 150 mg tincture product has a concentration of 5 mg/ml, so each dropperful is 5 mg.
  • A 300 mg tincture product has a concentration of 10 mg/ml, so each dropperful is 10 mg.
  • A 600 mg tincture product has a concentration of 20 mg/ml, so each dropperful is 20 mg.
  • A 900 mg tincture product has a concentration of 30 mg/ml, so each dropperful is 30 mg.


Notes regarding the use of tinctures

Because the various constituents present in a tincture may settle to the bottom of the bottle if the bottle has been sitting for a while, one should shake the bottle before use. Also, because the droppers are not calibrated very well or at all, it is a good idea to use a calibrated syringe (in 1 cc, 3 cc or 5 cc sizes depending on your dose) to facilitate accurate and consistent dosing. The dispensaries should have them available if you ask.


Tinctures should be placed under the tongue in the sublingual space where the medicine is absorbed directly into the blood stream rather than being swallowed. This method allows a more rapid and efficient absorption of the medicine without it being first broken down and modified by the stomach and liver, providing a maximum effect. Because the sublingual space only holds about 20 drops (or 1 cc), one must use caution about placing too much tincture at a time or the excess tincture will be swallowed. It is advised to place only about 5-10 drops at a time under the tongue and to allow a couple of minutes for them to be absorbed. The consensus of opinion is that one should hold the tincture under the tongue for at least 1-2 minutes to provide optimal absorption.


Tinctures absorbed under the tongue (sublingual) will have an onset of effect in about 30 minutes compared to more than an hour after swallowing. The effects should last up to 4-8 hours after use. When simply swallowed, the tincture will still provide benefits but they will be slower in onset and may last longer. Even when the product is placed under the tongue it is likely some of the dose will be swallowed. This is not a problem and may even offer advantages.


Due to the breakdown of the THC  by the stomach and liver, the final therapeutic benefit may be different when swallowed compared to sublingual absorption. Furthermore, if the stomach is full, especially with a high fat meal, absorption is enhanced with a longer effect although it may be slower in onset.


These methods of absorption with tinctures compare with the use of inhaled products that  nearly immediately enter the blood stream with rapid effects. Dosing with inhaled products however is less precise and differs based on the depth of inhalation and the length of time one holds the vape in before exhaling.


Initial Dosing of the Tinctures for the Inexperienced

The recommendations below are generalized and based on the manufacturer’s suggested dosing. Ultimately, dosing recommendations should be provided by the prescriber and based on multiple variables including the patient’s age, size, underlying medical conditions and current medications and experience with marijuana use.



The tinctures are available in 2 formulations: 

    1. THC and CBD in a balanced formulation with equal amounts of THC and CBD
    2. THC-only formulation


Because studies indicate that the benefits of both THC and CBD are enhanced when the two are given together, the balanced formulations are recommended as starting formulations, starting with the lowest concentration formula. Additionally, CBD is believed to reduce some of the side effects seen with THC, particularly the anxiety and paranoia that can sometimes occur with THC. For the uninitiated or naive patient this combination is likely to be better tolerated. If the initial use of the balanced formulation is associated with excessive sedation, either the THC dose or, possibly, the CBD dose is too high – usually the THC. Sometimes, however, CBD is associated with excessive sedation and it may be necessary to use the THC-only product.



Potency: 150 mg CBD and 150 mg THC in a 30 mL bottle (5 mg CBD & 5 mg THC/mL).


Initial recommendation:

Inexperienced patients start with a dose of 0.5 mL (1/2 dropperful) that provides 2.5 mg CBD & 2.5 mg THC to be taken 1 time per day at bedtime for 1 week.

Experienced patients may with a dose of 1.0 mL (5 mg CBD & 5 mg THC) 1 time per dayat bedtime for 1 week.


If desired relief is not achieved after 1 week:

Patients may increase initial dose to 2 times per day for 1-2 weeks.


If desired relief is not achieved after 3 weeks:

Patients may increase initial dose to 3 times per day for 2 weeks.


For greater relief:

Patients may increase initial dosing in a stair-step manner by adding 0.5 mL (1/2 dropperful) to the initial dose every 1-2-weeks as tolerated until the desired relief is achieved.



If it is determined that the CBD component is not tolerated, one should rotate off the balanced formulation and try the THC-only formulation, starting with the lowest concentration formula.

Potency: 300mg THC/30mL (10 mg THC/mL).


Initial recommended starting dose:

Inexperienced patients start with a sublingual dose of 0.25 mL (2.5mg THC) 1 time per day at bedtime for 1 week.

Experienced patients start with a sublingual dose of 0.5 mL (5.0 mg THC) 1 time per day at bedtime for 1 week.


If desired therapeutic effect is not achieved after 1 week:

Patients may take initial dose 2 times per day for 1-2 weeks.

If desired relief is not achieved after 1-2 weeks:

Patients may increase initial dose to 3 times per day for 1-2 weeks.


For greater relief:

Inexperienced patients may increase initial dose in a stair-step manner by adding 0.25 mL to initial dose every 1-2 weeks until desired relief is achieved (e.g., progress from initial dose of 0.25 mL to 0.5 mL to 0.75 mL to 1.0 mL).

Experienced patients may increase initial dose in a stair-step manner by adding 0.5 mL to initial dose for a 1-2 week period until desired relief is achieved.

If necessary, one my progress slowly to the stronger formulations: 600 mg/ml and 900 mg/ml.


Supplementing the Tinctures

Depending on the tincture product selected, one may not fully achieve the therapeutic benefits desired. If trial and error switching between tincture products continues to fall short, another option is to supplement a tincture with other products, particularly CBD products that include terpenes. There are many such products available over the counter that allow for selective therapeutic effects when added to THC-only tinctures. By supplementing a THC-only product, one can precisely control the dose of THC to fine tune the specific THC benefits being sought while the supplemental constituents may be independently dosed to fine tune the benefits provided by the supplemental CBD/terpene blend.


An example of this approach is as follows. Perhaps the Ilera THC-only tincture one uses sufficiently addresses the pain benefits with specific dosing, but greater anxiety benefit is sought, perhaps targeting night time use to enhance sleep. In this case one may supplement the THC-only tincture with a CBD product with a blend of terpenes directed at anxiety and insomnia. The dosing of the CBD/terpenes can be modified as desired independently from the dosing of the THC.


Optional CBD/terpene products currently available include CarolinaCannabinoid’s “Relax & Sleep” and “Energy & Focus” that are themselves offered as “THC-free.” Terpene-only blends are also available that are formulated to mimic the content of popular marijuana strain (See: Terpenes).


For more information on dosing, See: Marijuana Dosing & Marijuana Dosing: “Pot” vs Pharmaceutical Cannabis


Ilera Holistic Healthcare:

Ilera THC/CBD Tinctures (30 ml bottles): Shine and Shine+

The Ilera balanced  “Shine” THC/CBD tinctures come in 2 concentrations of balanced proportions of equal amounts of THC and CBD along with the terpenes. The dominant terpenes in these formulations are pinene and limonene (citrus flavored):

    1. 150 mg bottle: 5 mg THC & 5 mg CBD/ml (Shine)
    2. 300 mg bottle: 10 mg THC & 10 mg CBD/ml (Shine+)


Ilera THC-only Tinctures (30 ml bottles): THC+ and THC++

The THC-only tinctures come in 2 concentrations (without flavorings, additives, or terpenes):

      1. 300 mg bottle: 10 mg/ml of THC (THC+)
      2. 600 mg bottle: 20 mg/ml of THC (THC++)


Wellcana (Good Farm)

The Wellcare tinctures, the balanced THC/CBD and the THC without CBD, are “full spectrum” and contain additional cannabinoids including cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabinol (CBN), Canbachromene (CBC), terpenes and flavonoids. Unfortunately, the marijuana strain from which these terpenes are derived and their actual amounts or ratios found in their products are proprietary and not disclosed. , It iknown that one of the primary strains they grow is Jenny Kush and the most abundant terpenes in Jenny Kush are pinene, followed by caryophyllene and limonene.


Because these variables determine the potential therapeutic benefits of the formulations it is not possible to predict their specific efficacy for medical conditions. Additionally, each batch of tinctures has different amounts of the various strains they use. However, Wellcana (Good Farm) only has several strains that they grow and extract from, so each batch of tinctures has the same group of strains but maybe in different amounts resulting in may minor differences in their terpene profiles from batch to batch of tinctures.


Wellcana Balanced THC/CBD Tinctures (30 ml bottles):

The Wellcare balanced THC/CBD tinctures come in 2 concentrations of balanced proportions of equal amounts of THC and CBD.  They come in cherry, mint or natural flavors::

      1. 150 mg bottle: 5 mg THC & 5 mg CBD/ml
      2. 300 mg bottle: 10 mg THC & 10 mg CBD/ml


Wellcana THC-only Tinctures (30 ml bottles):

Unlike the THC-only tinctures by Ilera that contain no secondary constituents, the Wellcana THC-only tinctures are full spectrum, with naturally occurring terpenes (terpene profile not available), minor cannabinoids (not including CBD) and flavonoids. They are available in cherry, mint, and natural flavors and come in three THC concentrations:

        1. 300 mg bottle: 10 mg/ml of THC
        2. 600 mg bottle: 20 mg/ml of THC
        3. 900 mg bottle: 30 mg/ml of THC



National Academy of Sciences

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research


These lay-person websites appear to be good resources for exploring medical marijuana:





Epidiolex (cannabidiol)

  1. FDA approves CBD drug – Epidiolex – The Washington Post


Marinol (dronabinol)

  1. Marinol – dronabinol


 Marijuana – Sativs vs Indica

  1. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018


Medical Marijuana – Federal Law

  1. The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law – 2017



Medical Marijuana – Dosing

  1. Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing – 2018
  2. Measuring cannabis consumption – Psychometric properties of the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU) – 2017
  3. Quantifying Cannabis – A Field Study of Marijuana Quantity Estimation – 2018
  4. Bayesian inference for the distribution of grams of marijuana in a joint. – PubMed – NCBI – 2016
  5. Delphi Consensus – recommendations on dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain – results of a modified Delphi process – 2021
  6. Delphi Consensus – A cannabis oracle? Delphi method not a substitute for randomized controlled trials of cannabinoids as therapeutics – 2021
  7. Delphi Consensus – Clinical experience and COI disclosures
  8. Delphi Consensus – Dosing and Administration of Medical Cannabis- Physician Survey
  9. Delphi Consensus – Virtual Voting Round 2 Results Delphi Consensus – Voting Round 1 Results
  10. Consensus‐based recommendations for titrating cannabinoids and tapering opioids for chronic pain control – 2021


Medical Marijuana – Louisiana Law

  1. Louisiana-2016-SB180-Chaptered
  2. HOUSE BILL NO. 225 – 2017 Regular Session
  3. Louisiana medical marijuana expansion bill signed into law – May 20, 2016
  4. Now in Effect, Louisiana Medical Marijuana Law Shields Patients and Caregivers from Prosecution – Aug 5, 2016
  5. Louisiana-2016-SB180-Chaptered


Cannabidiol (CBD)- Overviews

  1. CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Pre-Review Report WHO 2017
  2. Cannabidiol – State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. – 2017 PubMed – NCBI


CBD – Anxiety

  1. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain – Clinical Implications – 2016
  2. Cannabidiol Modulates Fear Memory Formation Through Interactions with Serotonergic Transmission in the Mesolimbic System – 2016
  3. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids – 2018
  5. Plastic and Neuroprotective Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol in Psychiatric Disorders – 2017
  6. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Evidences for the Anti-panic Actions of Cannabidiol – 2017
  8. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug – 2012
  9. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients – 2011


CBD – Interaction with THC

  1. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis – 2015
  3. Taming THC – potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects – 2011
  4. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI



CBD – Metabolites

  1. Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol – A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy – 2016


CBD – Drug-Metabolic Interactions

  1. Cannabidiol, a Major Phytocannabinoid, As a Potent Atypical Inhibitor for CYP2D6 – 2011
  2. The Effect of CYP2D6 Drug-Drug Interactions on Hydrocodone Effectiveness – 2014 
  3. Characterization of P-glycoprotein Inhibition by Major Cannabinoids from Marijuana – 2006


Medical Marijuana – Prescribing Guidelines

  1. Simplified guideline for prescribing medical cannabinoids in primary care – Canadian Family Physician – 2018
  2. Physician Recommendation of Medical Cannabis Guidelines Calif Medical Assoc – 2011
  3. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain. Preliminary recommendationsCanadian Family Physician – 2014



Medical Marijuana – Opioids

  1. Use-of-Prescription-Pain-Medications-Among-Medical-Cannabis-Patients
  2. It is premature to expand access to medicinal cannabis in hopes of solving the US opioid crisis – 2018
  3. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  4. Patterns and correlates of medical cannabis use for pain among patients prescribed long-term opioid therapy. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Associations between medical cannabis and prescription opioid use in chronic pain patients – A preliminary cohort study – 2017
  6. The prevalence and significance of cannabis use in patients prescribed chronic opioid therapy: a review of the extant literature. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. The use of cannabis in response to the opioid crisis: A review of the literature. – PubMed – NCBI
  8. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999–2010 – 2014
  9. Rationale for cannabis-based interventions in the opioid overdose crisis – 2017
  10. Cannabis and the Opioid Crisis – 2018
  11. Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Cannabinoid–Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain
  13. Synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid analgesics. – PubMed – NCBI
  14. FDA approves CBD drug – Epidiolex – The Washington Post


Medical Marijuana, Chronic Pain – Cannabinoids & Palmitoylethanolamide

  1. Therapeutic utility of palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with various pathological conditions – a case series – 2012
  2. Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent – 2013
  3. Cannabinoid-based drugs targeting CB1 and TRPV1, the sympathetic nervous system, and arthritis – 2015
  4. Fatty acid amide hydrolase: biochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic possibilities for an enzyme hydrolyzing anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol,… – PubMed – NCBI 2001
  5. Endocannabinoid-related compounds in gastrointestinal diseases – 2018
  6. ‘Entourage’ effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-oleoylethanolamide on vasorelaxation to anandamide occur through TRPV1 receptors – 2008
  7. Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids- An Option for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Ca
    ncer of the Colon? – 2018
  8. Effects of homologues and analogues of palmitoylethanolamide upon the inactivation of the endocannabinoid anandamide – 2001
  9. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? – 2010
  10. Palmitoylethanolamide, endocannabinoids and related cannabimimetic compounds in protection against tissue inflammation and pain: potential use in c… – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain – from the bench to the bedside. – 2009
  12. Correction – Effect of a new formulation of micronized and ultramicronized N-palmitoylethanolamine in a tibia fracture mouse model of complex regional pain syndrome – 2018
  13. Palmitoylethanolamide induces microglia changes associated with increased migration and phagocytic activity – involvement of the CB2 receptor – 2017
  14. Mast cells, glia and neuroinflammation – partners in crime? – 2013
  15. A Pharmacological Rationale to Reduce the Incidence of Opioid Induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia – A Review – 2018


Medical Marijuana –Misc

  1. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Cannabis and cannabis extracts – greater than the sum of their parts? – 2001
  3. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review. 2016 – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Epidemiological characteristics, safety and efficacy of medical cannabis in the elderly. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Cannabis-conclusions – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  6. Cannabis-chapter-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  7. Cannabis-report-highlights – 2017 National Academy of Sciences
  8. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Bene ts of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?-2004
  9. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Cannabis use and cognitive function: 8-year trajectory in a young adult cohort. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450 Interactions. – PubMed – NCBI Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoids – 2018
  13. Systematic review of systematic reviews for medical cannabinoids – 2018
  14. Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids – a systematic review – 2008
  15. Cannabimimetic effects modulated by cholinergic compounds. – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Antagonism of marihuana effects by indomethacin in humans. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. – PubMed – NCBI
  18. Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids – 2004
  19. Affinity and Efficacy Studies of Te
    trahydrocannabinolic Acid A at Cannabinoid Receptor Types One and Two. – 2017
  20. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  21. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review. – PubMed – NCBI
  22. Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
  23. Current-status-and-future-of-cannabis-research-Clin-Researcher-2015
  24. Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems – A Clinical Review – 2015


Medical Marijuana – Products

Medical Marijuana – Product Evaluation

  1. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018
  2. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016


Medical Marijuana – Flower/Bud Products

Wellcana (Good Day Farm):

  1. Grease Monkey Flyer
  2. Lilac Diesel Flyer


Medical Marijuana – Topical Products

  1. Soothe Flyer
  2. Breathe Flyer



Emphasis on Education


Accurate Clinic promotes patient education as the foundation of it’s medical care. In Dr. Ehlenberger’s integrative approach to patient care, including conventional and complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments, he may encourage or provide advice about the use of supplements. However, the specifics of choice of supplement, dosing and duration of treatment should be individualized through discussion with Dr. Ehlenberger. The following information and reference articles are presented to provide the reader with some of the latest research to facilitate evidence-based, informed decisions regarding the use of conventional as well as CAM treatments.


For medical-legal reasons, access to these links is limited to patients enrolled in an Accurate Clinic medical program.


Should you wish more information regarding any of the subjects listed – or not listed –  here, please contact Dr. Ehlenberger. He has literally thousands of published articles to share on hundreds of topics associated with pain management, weight loss, nutrition, addiction recovery and emergency medicine. It would take years for you to read them, as it did him.


For more information, please contact Accurate Clinic.


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