“A lot of people say they want to get out of pain, and I’m sure that’s true, but they aren’t willing to make healing a high priority.”
– Lindsay Wagner


Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress

“Oxidative stress” is an imbalance in the body of excessive “oxidants” (oxidizing or chemically active, agents, including free radicals obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and insufficient “anti-oxidants” (chemically active agents that are also obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and neutralize oxidants. Oxidative stress contributes to chronic inflammation and many chronic diseases.




Individual antioxidants:



The medical information on this site is provided as a resource for information only, and is not to be used or relied upon for any diagnostic or treatment purposes and is not intended to create any patient-physician relationship.  Readers are advised to seek professional guidance regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their medical concerns.


Key to Links:

  • Grey text – handout
  • Red text – another page on this website
  • Blue text – Journal publication


Antioxidants & Oxidative Stress


Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a generic term used for a variety of molecules derived from oxygen that react with most biomolecules by oxidizing them, a destructive process. ROS include free radicals such as hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion radical (O2.-) and nitric oxide (NO.) as well as non-radicalic molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-).  ROS are widely believed to cause or aggravate many human pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, stroke and many other ailments.


Free radicals

Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electrons that are capable of independent existence (reason for term “free”). The unpaired electrons make free radicals extremely reactive towards biomolecules including DNA, RNA, protein and other cellular and tissue components. Free radicals are not always “bad”: they are produced in the body (endogenous free radicals) and have beneficial roles in important physiological processes. For example, nitric oxide (NO) is protective in vasculature and is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system while oxygen free radicals are vital in the immune system to fend off infections. The human body produces free radicals and other reactive species as byproducts of numerous physiological, metabolic and biochemical processes. In addition to reactive oxygen species (ROS), there are also reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The most common cellular free radicals are hydroxyl (OH·), superoxide (O –·) and nitric monoxide (NO·). Other molecules like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) generate free radicals through various biochemical reactions.

Excessive levels of free radicals however can lead to tissue damage.  People are constantly exposed to free radicals in their environment (exogenous free radicals) like those created by electromagnetic radiation and those associated with foods, pollutants, cigarette smoke and natural sources such as radon and cosmic radiation.



Oxidation is a chemical process that involves a gain of oxygen or loss of electrons. “Oxidants” are oxidizing or chemically active agents such as free radicals that trigger oxidation. Oxidation of biomolecules causes them to become damaged and then degraded by physiological processes or malfunction. An analogy is rust: oxygen, in the presents of water, oxidizes iron in steel causing it to rust, the product of oxidation.


Oxidative Stress

Since we are in constant contact with oxygen, ROS are continuously produced in our body, but they are always kept under control and their effect is counteracted by physiological antioxidant defense mechanisms that intercept the ROS, or repair the damage that has already occurred by them. Under normal conditions, the potentially harmful effect of the ROS is successfully restrained by the body’s defense mechanisms, including the manufacturing of antioxidants. However, the balance between ROS production and antioxidant protective mechanisms may become impaired in a situation called “oxidative stress.”


Oxidative stress is an imbalance in the body of excessive “oxidants” (oxidizing or chemically active, agents, including free radicals obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and insufficient “antioxidants” (chemically active agents that are also obtained from the diet or produced by the body) and neutralize oxidants. This overabundance of oxidants causes damage to biomolecules, (lipids, proteins, DNA), cells and tissue, eventually contributing to aging and many chronic diseases including chronic inflammation, arthritis and pain, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases and stroke.


Furthermore, oxidative stress is now determined to be highly associated with most major psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress because it is metabolically active, possesses high levels of pro-oxidant iron, and is composed of unsaturated lipids (prone to lipid peroxidation). Furthermore, the blood–brain barrier prevents many exogenous anti-oxidants from quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain.



An antioxidant has been defined as “any substance that delays, prevents or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule.” Antioxidants are believed to counteract the harmful effects of ROS and RNS and therefore prevent or treat these oxidative stress-related diseases.


Antioxidants can be divided into endogenous molecules that are naturally synthesized in the human body or “exogenous” compounds that are mostly produced in plants (fruits and vegetables) and ingested as part of the diet. Endogenous antioxidants are produced in the mitochondria within cells throughout the body and serve to detoxify free radicals and protect tissues from such damage.


Fruits and vegetables are especially rich in exogenous antioxidants including vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A, curcumin, resveratrol, glutathione, arginine, citrulline, taurine, creatine, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols found in tea. .Diets rich in fruits and vegetables result in high blood antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress. Antioxidant activity is further supported by antioxidant enzymes, e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase that exert synergistic actions in removing free radicals. Minerals are also important in the manufacture and function of endogenous antioxidants, including zinc, copper, manganese, selenium and iron.

Large research studies have shown that higher intake of antioxidants in the diet is associated with lower risks of coronary heart disease, certain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence current recommendations for the Mediterranean Diet and the Paleo Diet that emphasize intake of fruits and vegetables.


There has been much enthusiasm in the field of free radicals. Antioxidants have been advocated for therapy of a vast range of serious diseases in the 1980s and 1990s, however, in the light of recent research findings, many doubts have now been raised about the usefulness of taking antioxidant supplements. This has given rise to a pessimistic view of antioxidant therapy. However, the evidence from human research studies about the beneficial effects of dietary antioxidants is still compelling.


Managing Oxidative Stress

Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress due to a reduction in the efficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems. Organs such as heart and brain, with limited replication rate and high levels of oxygen consumption, are particularly vulnerable to this oxidative stress, explaining the high prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.


A great deal of research has reported an inverse correlation between serum or plasma total antioxidant capacity and both the onset and progression of several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases,  diabetes,  respiratory and neurological disorders.

Managing oxidative stress requires a multi-modal lifestyle approach that includes exercise, diet, reduction of stress including mindful exercises including yoga, meditation or simply practicing stress-reducing activities like fishing and playing with pets. The role of supplementing with antioxidants has been the focus of many studies to assess their benefits.


Antioxidant Supplementation

Consequently, theories of aging emerged including the Free Radical Theory of Aging (FRTA) and the more generalized Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging (OSTA) based on the assumption that lowering levels of ROS in the body might retard aging, increase life span and be effective in preventing and treating aging-associated diseases. Antioxidant supplementation, promoted as a promising therapy and met with general acceptance, is directed at counterbalancing oxidative stress.


However, the clinical response to antioxidants-based therapies has been mixed, in part due to the complexity of the interplay between endogenous and exogenous antioxidants within the overall cellular redox system.


Many natural antioxidant compounds have been studied for supplementation therapies, either singularly or in combination, with particular attention to Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta carotene, resveratrol, curcumin, hydroxytyrosol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10).


Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) plays different important roles in the cell; as a reducing agent and an antioxidant, Vitamin C reacts and inactivates ROS and regenerates α-tocopherol (Vitamin E). Supplementation with Vitamin C counteracts endothelial dysfunction,  one of the major contributors to the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. It also inhibits LDL oxidation, offering a protective effect against elevated cholesterol levels. Higher plasma levels of Vitamin C are associated with lower cardiovascular risk factors. Recent studies suggest that vitamin C, especially in combination with vitamin E, may be helpful in reducing risk of cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s .

See: Vitamin C


Vitamin E (α-tocopherol)

Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties as well as other properties such as the modulation of the expression of genes involved in signaling and it is also involved in the metabolism of cholesterol.


However,  human and animal studies of the effectiveness of Vitamin E supplementation in aging-associated diseases, oxidative stress and inflammation have had mixed results, including beneficial and harmful effects. Recent studies suggest that vitamin C, especially in combination with vitamin E, may be helpful in reducing risk of cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s .

See: Vitamin E


Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), referred to as ubiquinol in its most active (95%) and reduced form (Q10H2), is an essential lipophilic molecule present in the membranes of almost all human tissues, particularly the mitochondria (the energy producing “powerplants” of all cells).  It functions to transfer electrons in the respiratory chain, ultimately resulting in the reduction of oxygen to water and the generation of ATP, the energy source for metabolism. CoQ10 also recycles and regenerates other antioxidants such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E.


CoQ10 also modulates gene expression and protects DNA, proteins and lipoproteins such as very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins from oxidation. CoQ has a number of independent anti-inflammatory effects including reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory cells after an inflammatory stimulus.


CoQ10 levels may be pathologically reduced in conditions associated with oxidative stress, aging and in those treated with statins (Lipitor/lovastatin, etc) for high cholesterol since statins can lower CoQ10 synthesis as they inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway of cholesterol synthesis, includes the formation of the CoQ10. CoQ10 supplementation at 300 mg/day is reported to significantly enhance antioxidant enzymes activities and lower inflammation in patients who have coronary heart disease during therapy with statins. Moreover, dietary supplementation with CoQ10 has been reported to improve patients with diabetes  and to decrease hepatic inflammatory stress.


Research on the effect of CoQ10 in diseases depending on oxidative stress in elderly people are limited still and no generalized conclusions can be drawn on the benefits or harms of CoQ10 supplementation.

See: CoQ10 & Mitochondrial Dysfunction



Beta-carotene is a yellow-red-orange pigment found in plants and fruits, especially carrots and colorful vegetables that is a vitamin A precursor. In a human study with 29,000 participants, elevated serum beta-carotene levels were associated with lower cardiovascular and heart disease. Other human studies have demonstrated that higher beta-carotene is associated with lower incidence of metabolic syndrome and lower body weight.


    • Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A, an essential vitamin
    • Vitamin A is toxic at high levels
    • Beta-carotene is an antioxidant
    • Foods rich in vitamin A include onions, carrots, peas, spinach and squash
    • Some evidence suggests that beta-carotene might slow cognitive decline
    • Beta-carotene supplements interact with certain drugs, including statins
    • Beta-carotene might help older people retain their lung strength as they age.


Curcumin is a phenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, which is lipophilic and shows low solubility in water, potentially limiting its absorption from the digestive tract. It is commonly used in Indian foods such as curry as a flavoring and coloring agent. Orally ingested curcumin is metabolized into the active metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin by a reductase found in the intestinal epithelium. Extensive research during the last few decades has identified a strong therapeutic and pharmacological potential for curcumin as antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent.


Curcumin improves arterial endothelial function and research suggests that regular ingestion of curcumin could improve endothelial function and might be a potential alternative treatment for patients who are unable to exercise. Another study suggests that regular ingestion of curcumin significantly increased carotid arterial compliance possibly reducing the risk of stroke.

See: Curcumin


N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that reduces ROS both directly and indirectly. It does so directly by chemically reacting with ROS molecules neutralizing the free radical. The indirect effects of NAC are derived by it providing cysteine for the formation of glutathione from the essential amino acid, L-cysteine. Glutathione, a potent physiological antioxidant, has poor oral bioavailability and therefore is  limited in its benefit directly as a supplement while supplemental NAC can being effectively utilized in many treatment protocols and clinical studies with relatively few side effects.


NAC and Obesity

The benefits of NAC in obesity has been demonstrated in countless studies. Since obesity is characterized by elevated levels of both oxidative stress and inflammation, NAC has been a target for research to minimize the progression of obesity and associated co-morbidities. Studies have shown a beneficial role of NAC in reducing biomarkers associated with fat production. The reduction in these biomarkers with NAC supplementation was shown to correlate with elevation of glutathione levels and reduction of ROS. This suggests that supplementation with NAC can reduce production of fat by increasing glutathione levels. Furthermore, animal studies have shown that supplementation with NAC in a high fat diet reduces triglyceride and cholesterol content in the liver suggesting a role for NAC in preventing obesity-related fatty liver.

A major factor associated with obesity is the oxidative stress-related inflammation present in various metabolic tissues linked to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and ischemic strokes. The effectiveness of NAC in counteracting obesity-associated inflammation and the progression of metabolic disorders is attributed to NAC’s ability to reduce inflammatory chemicals (cytokines) while increasing antioxidant components.


NAC and Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM)

The ability of NAC to reduce inflammatory pathways and ROS generation may allow for improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese individuals that begin to develop T2DM. Recent studies have shown treatment with NAC improves plasma insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity across multiple tissues including muscles.

NAC and the Heart

Current evidence strongly suggests that NAC may be cardioprotective by reducing hyperglycemia induced oxidative damage to the heart. This improvement in oxidative stress of the heart reduces the progressive loss in cardiac efficiency and cardiac fibrosis (scarring) that occurs with oxidative stress. Multiple studies have demonstrated that NAC increases levels of glutathione in cardiac muscle cells, while reducing levels of ROS and various biomarkers for oxidative stress.


Olive Oil

Hydroxytyrosol is an ortho-diphenol (a catechol) abundant in olive, fruits and extra virgin olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol has significant antioxidant activity and inhibits LDL oxidation, platelet aggregation and it protects DNA from oxidation. It is thought to be a major contributor to the benefits associated with diets high in olive oil.

Research evaluating the effects of daily consumption of extra virgin olive oil found a significant improvement in lipid profiles, including a reduction of total cholesterol and LDL and a significant increase in HDL levels. Moreover, an increase in serum total antioxidant capacity was identified.

See: Diet & Pain


Resveratrol (3, 4′, 5-trihydroxystilbene)

Resveratrol belongs to the stilbene class of compounds, abundant in many plants, such as peanuts, blueberries, pine nuts and grapes where it mainly accumulates in a glycosylated form. Resveratrol appears to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways through the regulation of different molecular targets including the AMP-regulated kinase AMPK and the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirt-1. The molecular mechanisms triggered by resveratrol results in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Resveratrol is a good antioxidant and, like Vitamin C, blocks oxidation of LDL, lowering the risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction and improves vascular function.


The anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol include the suppression of NF-κB activity induced by beta- amyloid and the reduction of the production of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha induced by LPS or beta-amyloid in the microglia, suggesting a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

See: Resveratrol


Influences on the Outcomes of Antioxidant Supplementation

As noted above, clinical trials involving the use of antioxidants supplementation often show conflicting results on the use of these antioxidants in the treatment of aging-associated diseases. What should be re-considered is the FRTA, the basic theory on which the antioxidants supplementation therapies are based. This theory suggests a linear dose-response relationship between increasing amounts of ROS and biological damages, which results in diseases and mortality. Therefore, oxidative stress is the main driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan.


Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a biphasic response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition. In other words, a low level stimulation may result in one effect but a high level stimulation results in the opposite effect. This concept may apply to the effects of oxidative stress.
Fasting and Caloric Restriction
A recent modification of this theory also takes into account “mitohormesis,” in which a large amount of ROS causes detrimental effects on the cells, whereas low or moderate levels of ROS may exert an opposite effect improving biological outcomes. Thus, the response to antioxidants may depend on other variables in the metabolic status of an individual. An example of this is the beneficial effects of fasting and caloric restriction  that can be considered both as oxidative stressors and inducers of the endogenous mitochondrial antioxidant system.  Fasting and caloric restriction promote an initial adaptive stimulation of mitochondrial activity resulting in the triggering of increased production of antioxidant enzymes as well as ROS within the mitochondria.
Fasting and caloric restriction induce this adaptive hormetic response through different molecular pathways, one of these involving sirtuins, a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in inducing formation of new mitochondria and mediating oxidative stress response through a number of proteins that promote the expression of antioxidant genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1 alpha 5 (PGC-1 α ).
Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, CVD, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and many other diseases. The benefits of regular physical exercise in reducing risk of aging-related diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well known. The increased ROS production following exercise acts as a stimulus to activate mitochondria and mediate potential health-benefits. Exercise induces an increase in the sirtuin SIRT1 which up-regulates the oxidative stress response. This up-regulation results in enhanced oxygen consumption in muscle fibers, which, in turn, promotes ROS generation. Moreover, beyond skeletal muscle, other tissues, such as blood, heart and lung, represent a source of ROS during exercise. In addition to enhanced ROS production, regular exercise leads to the up-regulation of several antioxidant enzymes, including SODs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, reinforcing the concept that a certain amount of ROS may be necessary for exercise health-promoting effects.


Due to the benefits for mitochondrial activity associated with exercise, in circumstances associated with extreme exercise such as athletic performance, supplementing with antioxidants such as Vitamin C and E may prove to prevent exercise benefits and possibly harm performance. In these more extreme circumstances, antioxidants appear to block some of the benefits of exercise. Therefore, supplementation of antioxidants should not be recommended to healthy athletes due to evidence that antioxidants have counter-productive effects on performance, health, and the onset of diseases.

It may not be surprising, then, that studies show mixed or inadequate benefits from supplementing with antioxidants, including prevention of certain diseases. A  transient increase of oxidative stress may contribute to health benefits and antioxidant supplementation may compromise these results. Other variables that may affect outcome from the use of antioxidants are genetic and epigenetic variants.

Genetics & Epigenetics

In addition to hormesis, another aspect to be considered regarding the conflicting results of antioxidant supplementation research is the variable genetic background of the patients enrolled in the studies. Research has established that a person’s susceptibility to diseases of aging depends not only on a person’s life style habits but also on their genetic background. Oxidative stress response is one of the most evolutionary conserved pathways involved in determination of lifespan from yeast to humans.
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic determinants associated with the levels of circulating antioxidants, which could be linked to human diseases. Genetic polymorphisms (variants) involving Vitamin E transport and metabolism are associated with response to vitamin E supplementation which in turn might determine the level of supplementation required to impact complex diseases such as CVD and diabetes. Previous studies may have failed to identify the benefit of vitamin E supplementation because of the inadequate selection of patient genotype. Recent studies have confirmed the impact of genotyping in determining potential benefits from antioxidant therapy and suggest the need for a pharmacogenomic strategy to personalize and fine-tune the treatment with vitamin E in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Epigenetics, the study of how genes are turned on or off, may also play a future role in determining the potential impact of antioxidant supplementation for specific antioxidants and disease processes. One problem is a lack of validated biomarkers to monitor the effects of antioxidants on human health. Clearly research is only just beginning to unravel clues to improve the management of oxidative stress with the hope of better reducing the risk of disease and the ravages of aging as well as human health optimization.




  1. Antioxidant therapy- current status and future prospects – 2016
  2. CoQ10
  3. Glutathione
  4. Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Foods – 2007
  5. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Treatment of Aging-Associated Diseases – 2016

Oxidative Stress – Overviews

  1. oxidative-stress-implications-in-the-affective-disorders-main-biomarkers-animal-models-relevance-genetic-perspectives-and-antioxidant-approaches-2016
  2. oxidative-stress-in-health-and-disease-the-therapeutic-potential-of-nrf2-activation-2011
  3. adaptive-cellular-stress-pathways-as-therapeutic-targets-of-dietary-phytochemicals-focus-on-the-nervous-system-2014
  4. oxidative-stress-a-cause-and-therapeutic-target-of-diabetic-complications-2010
  5. a-randomized-trial-of-glutamine-and-antioxidants-in-critically-ill-patients-2013
  6. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships – 2015
  7. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) – 2014


Oxidative Stress – Anxiety and Depression

  1. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Neuroprogression in Depression Disorder – 2015
  2. Neuroinflammation and Depression – Microglia Activation, Extracellular Microvesicles and microRNA Dysregulation – 2015
  3. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety – Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment
  4. Oxidative:nitrosative stress and antidepressants: targets for novel antidepressants. – PubMed – NCBI


Oxidative Stress – Fibromyalgia

  1. Oxidative Stress Correlates with Headache Symptoms in Fibromyalgia – Coenzyme Q10 Effect on Clinical Improvement 2012
  2. Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder? – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia: the potential role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide. – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Oxidative Stress in Fibromyalgia – Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications – 2011
  5. Oxidative Stress in Fibromyalgia and its Relationship to Symptoms – 2009
  6. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma
  7. Evidence of central inflammation in fibromyalgia — Increased cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-8 levels 2012
  8. Oxidative Stress in Fibromyalgia – Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications – 2011
  9. Vitamins C and E treatment combined with exercise modulates oxidative stress markers in blood of patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled clinical … – PubMed – NCBI
  10. Total antioxidant capacity and the severity of the pain in patients with fibromyalgia. – PubMed – NCBI
  11. Stress, the stress response system, and fibromyalgia
  12. Serum prolidase enzyme activity and oxidative status in patients with fibromyalgia. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. Serum ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with fibromyalgia. – 2014 – PubMed – NCBI
  14. Pathophysiology and antioxidant status of patients with fibromyalgia. 2011 – PubMed – NCBI
  15. Metformin and caloric restriction induce an AMPK-dependent restoration of mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts from Fibromyalgia patients. 2015 – PubMed – NCBI
  16. Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue: the underlying biology and related theoretical issues. – PubMed – NCBI
  17. Antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in fibromyalgia: etiologic and therapeutic concerns. 2006 – PubMed – NCBI


Oxidative Stress – Fibromyalgia & Mitochondria

  1. Serum antioxidants and nitric oxide levels in fibromyalgia: a controlled study. 2009 – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy activation in blood mononuclear cells of fibromyalgia patients – implications in the pathogenesis of the disease
  3. Could mitochondrial dysfunction be a differentiating marker between chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia? – PubMed – NCBI
  4. Is Inflammation a Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Dependent Event in Fibromyalgia? – 2012
  5. The role of mitochondrial dysfunctions due to oxidative and nitrosative stress in the chronic pain or chronic fatigue syndromes and fibromyalgia – 2013 – PubMed – NCBI
  6. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) – 2014

Oxidative Stress – Mitochondria

  1. Mitohormesis: Promoting Health and Lifespan by Increased Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) – 2014
  2. The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging and Age-Related Disorders – 2017
  3. Mitochondrion-Permeable Antioxidants to Treat ROS-Burst-Mediated Acute Diseases – 2016 no highlights
  4. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  5. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches. – PubMed – NCBI
  6. The mitochondrial cocktail: rationale for combined nutraceutical therapy in mitochondrial cytopathies. – PubMed – NCBI
  7. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies – Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies
  8. Daily Nutritional Dose Supplementation with Antioxidant Nutrients and Phytochemicals Improves DNA and LDL Stability


Oxidative Stress – Pain

  1. Roles of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Pain – 2011


Oxidative Stress – Peripheral Neuropathy

  1. Oxidative stress – A cause and therapeutic target of diabetic complications – 2010



 Oxidative Stress – Treatment (Tx)

Oxidative Stress Tx – Overviews

  1. Inflammaging and Skeletal Muscle – Can Protein Intake Make a Difference? – 2016


Oxidative Stress Tx – Melatonin

  1. Melatonin leads to axonal regeneration, reduction in oxidative stress, and improved functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury. – PubMed – NCBI
  2. Evaluating the Oxidative Stress in Inflammation – Role of Melatonin -2015



Oxidative Stress Tx – NRF2 Activators

See: NRF2 Activators

NRF2 Activators – Commercial Products

  1.    Green Tea Phytosome
  2.    Meriva (Curcumin)
  3.    Milk Thistle (Siliphos – Silybin Phytosome)
  4.    PolyResveratrol SR
  5.    Quercetin
  6.    Siliphos (Silybin Phytosome)


Nanoformulations –  Overview

  1. Blood–brain barrier – a real obstacle for therapeutics – 2012
  2. Natural product-based nanomedicine – recent advances and issues – 2015
  3. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range – a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs – 2011

Nanoformulations – Phytosomes

  1. A Review on Phytosome Technology as a Novel Approach to Improve The Bioavailability of Nutraceuticals – 2012
  2. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols – the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts – 2009
  3. Phytosomes – A New Herbal Drug Delivery System – 2012
  4. Phytosome – A Novel Revolution in Herbal Drugs – 2012
  5. Phytosome – Phytolipid Drug Delivery System for Improving Bioavailability of Herbal Drugs – 2013
  6. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols – the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts. – 2009
  7. Phospholipid Complex Technique for Superior Bioavailability of Phytoconstituents – 2017


Emphasis on Education


Accurate Clinic promotes patient education as the foundation of it’s medical care. In Dr. Ehlenberger’s integrative approach to patient care, including conventional and complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments, he may encourage or provide advice about the use of supplements. However, the specifics of choice of supplement, dosing and duration of treatment should be individualized through discussion with Dr. Ehlenberger. The following information and reference articles are presented to provide the reader with some of the latest research to facilitate evidence-based, informed decisions regarding the use of conventional as well as CAM treatments.


For medical-legal reasons, access to these links is limited to patients enrolled in an Accurate Clinic medical program.


Should you wish more information regarding any of the subjects listed – or not listed –  here, please contact Dr. Ehlenberger. He has literally thousands of published articles to share on hundreds of topics associated with pain management, weight loss, nutrition, addiction recovery and emergency medicine. It would take years for you to read them, as it did him.


For more information, please contact Accurate Clinic.


Supplements recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger may be purchased commercially online or at Accurate Clinic.

Please read about our statement regarding the sale of products recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger.

Accurate Supplement Prices