Terpenes

Terpenes and Anxiety

Abundant evidence supports the key role of the endocannabiniod system in moderating anxiety, whether induced by aversive stimuli, such as post-traumatic stress disorder or pain. Terpenes may synergistically potentiate CBD’s anxiolytic benefits and may also reduces the side effect of anxiety that is associated with the use of THC.

 

Links to other Pertinent Educational Pages:

Links to ALL Marijuana Educational Pages

 

Terpenes

Terpenes – An Overview

 

Terpenes Therapeutic Benefits

Terpenes and Pain

Terpenes and Anxiety

Terpenes and Inflammation

Terpenes and Insomnia

 

Individual Terpenes:

Terpenes – β-Caryophyllene

Terpenes – Limonene

Terpenes – Linalool

Terpenes – Myrcene

Terpenes – Pinene

 

 

The medical information on this site is provided as a resource for information only, and is not to be used or relied upon for any diagnostic or treatment purposes and is not intended to create any patient-physician relationship.  Readers are advised to seek professional guidance regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their medical concerns.

 

 

Key to Links:

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Terpenes and Anxiety

Terpenes are frequently promoted as having sedative and anxiety benefits. The following is a list of terpenes commonly believed to have sedative or anxiolytic effects:

  1. β-Caryophyllene
  2. Limonene
  3. Linalool
  4. Myrcene
  5. α-Pinene
  6. Phytol
  7. α-Terpineol
  8. Terpinolene

 

Anxiety – Cannabis strains and their terpenes, noted relative to their benefits for anxiety

 A 2018 publication evaluated (by surveys) the opinions of 442 patients using cannabis for medical purposes. Of these, 266 (60%) patients reported that they used cannabis to treat their anxiety whereas only 15% of these patients reported being diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder.

 

Most Effective

The top four cannabis strains reported to be most effective for reducing anxiety were Bubba Kush,  Skywalker OG Kush, Blueberry Lambsbread and Kosher Kush. Three of these four are “Kush” varieties, which all share a similar chemotype with high levels of the terpenes: trans-nerolidol, myrcene, β-Caryophyllene, D-limonene and linalool. Kush strains contain genetics originating from the pure Indica strains found in the Kush mountain range in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan and North-Western India.  “Hindu Kush” strains of Cannabis were brought to the United States in the mid-to-late 1970s.

Click here for a graph of weighted average terpene concentrations for the top four most effective cannabis strains for anxiety (taken from “Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype”).

 

Minor Cannabinoids

Of note, while CBD has been identified as being effective for anxiety, in the strains identified in this study as being most effective for anxiety the cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC) were measured at higher levels than CBD (0.68%, 0.13% and 0.075% respectively). It has been proposed that CBG may also have anxiolytic benefits.

 

Bubba Kush terpene profile (from industrialhempfarms.com):

Humulene (1.76%), Linalool (1.46%), Caryophyllene oxide (0.62%), Caryophyllene (0.4%), alpha-Pinene (<0.01%), Terpinolene (<0.01%), Myrcene (<0.01%),  beta-Pinene (<0.01%), Limonene (<0.01%).

Total terpenes 4.24%

Skywalker OG Kush terpene profile (from industrialhempfarms.com):

Humulene (1.77%), alpha-Pinene (0.88%), Myrcene (0.69%), Caryophyllene oxide (0.42%), Caryophyllene (0.37%),  Terpinolene (<0.01%), Linalool (<0.01%), beta-Pinene (<0.01%), Limonene (<0.01%).

Total terpenes 4.13%

 

Least Effective

Of the four cannabis strains considered least effective (but not necessarily ineffective), myrcene dominant strains and the terpinolene dominant strains were found to be less effective. These results could be due to different symptom etiology requiring different pharmacological interventions or may also arise from differences in personal biochemistry between patients with similar etiology.

For a complete analysis of weighted averages of all terpenes and cannabinoids for the top four most effective and least effective (for anxiety) cannabis strains in this study, click here (taken from “Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype”

 

Resources:

National Academy of Sciences

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

 

www.Healer.com

This website appears to be good resource for exploring medical marijuana.

 

References:

   

Terpenes – Overviews

  1. Therapeutic and Medicinal Uses of Terpenes – 2019
  2. Terpenes:Terpenoids in Cannabis – Are They Important? – 2020
  3. Advances in Pharmacological Activities of Terpenoids – 2020
  4. Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant – 2020
  5. The Cannabis Terpenes – 2020
  6. The “Entourage Effect” – Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – 2020
  7. Cannabis Essential Oil – A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects – 2018
  8. A Systematic Review of Essential Oils and the Endocannabinoid System – A Connection Worthy of Further Exploration – 2020
  9. Efficacy of Essential Oils in Pain – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Preclinical Evidence – 2021

 

Terpenes – Aromatherapy

  1. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms – 2017
  2. Corrigendum – A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust -2015
  3. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleepOdors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep
  4. Essential Oils and Animals – Which Essential Oils Are Toxic to Pets?
  5. Essential Oils and Pets
  6. Herbs and Their Uses for Animals – Patchouli and Pets
  7. Reactivating memories during sleep by odors – odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations – 2014
  8. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women – 2016
  9. Effects of odorant administration on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality, post-sleep mood and alertness, and cognitive performance – 2003
  10. An Olfactory Stimulus Modifies Nighttime Sleep in Young Men and Women – 2005
  11. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Aromatherapy hand massage for older adults with chronic pain living in long-term care. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. A Systematic Review of Essential Oils and the Endocannabinoid System – A Connection Worthy of Further Exploration – 2020
  14. Human olfactory receptors – novel cellular functions outside of the nose,” – 2017
  15. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues – PubMed – 2017
  16. How does your kidney smell? Emerging roles for olfactory receptors in renal function,” – 2017
  17. The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application – 2020
  18. Pharmacology of Natural Volatiles and Essential Oils in Food, Therapy, and Disease Prophylaxis – 2021

 

Terpenes – CB2 Receptor

  1. Cannabinoid-based therapy as a future for joint degeneration. Focus on the role of CB2 receptor in the arthritis progression and pain – an updated review – 2021
  2. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice – 2014
  3. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation – 2016

 

Terpenes – Synergy with Cannabinoids:

  1. Taming THC – potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects – 2011
  2. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Entourage Effect 2.0
  4. Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype – 2018
  5. Terpenoids and Phytocannabinoids Co-Produced in Cannabis Sativa Strains Show Specific Interaction for Cell Cytotoxic Activity – 2019
  6. Absence of Entourage – Terpenoids Commonly Found in Cannabis sativa Do Not Modulate the Functional Activity of Δ9-THC at Human CB1 and CB2 Receptors – 2019
  7. Terpenoids From Cannabis Do Not Mediate an Entourage Effect by Acting at Cannabinoid Receptors – 2020
  8. The “Entourage Effect” – Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – 2020

 

Terpenes – Marijuana Strains

  1. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  2. Terpenoid Chemoprofiles Distinguish Drug-type Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars in Nevada – 2018
  3. Terpenoids and Phytocannabinoids Co-Produced in Cannabis Sativa Strains Show Specific Interaction for Cell Cytotoxic Activity – 2019
  4. Identification of Terpenoid Chemotypes Among High (−)-trans-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol-Producing Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars 0 2017
  5. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018

 

Terpenes – Routes of Use:

  1. The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application – 2020
  2. Antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants – Applications and drug delivery strategies – 2020
  3. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment – 2018

 

Terpenes – Bioavailability

  1. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Natural Volatile Terpenes in Animals and Humans – 2000
  2. Bioavailability of Bioactive Compounds
  3. SPC Liposomes as Possible Delivery Systems for Improving Bioavailability of the Natural Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene – 2018

 

Terpenes – Arthritis

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015

 

Terpenes – Anxiety

  1. Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype – 2018
  2. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled With Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – PubMed – 2019
  3. Medicinal cannabis for psychiatric disorders – a clinically-focused systematic review – 2020
  4. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models – 2015
  5. A Systematic Review on the Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy during the First Stage of Labor – 2019
  6. A Systematic Review on the Anxiolytic Effectsof Aromatherapy in People with Anxiety Symptoms – 2011
  7. Anxiolytic Terpenoids and Aromatherapy for Anxiety and Depression – PubMed – 2020
  8. Effect of Aromatherapy on Dental Anxiety Among Orthodontic Patients – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2019
  9. Essential Oils and Their Constituents – An Alternative Source for Novel Antidepressants – 2017
  10. Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases – 2018
  11. Possible Use of Phytochemicals for Recovery from COVID-19-Induced Anosmia and Ageusia – 2021
  12. The calming effect of roasted coffee aroma in patients undergoing dental procedures – 2021
  13. The Effect of Lavender Aroma on Anxiety of Patients Having Bone Marrow Biopsy- 2020
  14. The-Effects-of-Essential-Oils-and-Terpenes-in-Relation-to-Their-Routes-of-Intake-and-Application-2020
  15. Therapeutic Effect and Mechanisms of Essential Oils in Mood Disorders – Interaction between the Nervous and Respiratory Systems – 2021
  16. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil Are Insensitive to Flumazenil in Rats – 2019

 

Terpenes – Infectious Diseases

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species – 2008
  2. Antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants – Applications and drug delivery strategies – 2020
  3. Essential Oils and Coronaviruses – 2020

 

Terpenes – Pain:

  1. Analgesic-like Activity of Essential Oils Constituents – 2011
  2. Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents – An Update – 2017
  3. Medicinal Plants of the Family Lamiaceae in Pain Therapy – A Review – 2018
  4. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils – 2016
  5. Medicinal Plants of the Family Lamiaceae in Pain Therapy – A Review – 2018
  6. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  7. Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant – 2020
  8.  The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin the Biological Benefits of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain and Inflammation – PubMed – 2020
  9. Cannabis-based medicines and the perioperative physician – 2019
  10. Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults – 2018
  11. Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain – An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science – 2018
  12. Role of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis-Mediated Analgesia in Rats – PubMed – 2019
  13. Antinociceptive effect of inhalation of the essential oil of bergamot in mice – 2018
  14. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils – 2016
  15. Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents – An Update – 2017

 

 

Terpenes – Headaches:

  1.  Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain – An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science – 2018
  2. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018

 

Terpenes – Inflammation:

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015 
  2. Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids – Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer – 2018
  3. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  4. Therapeutic Potential of Volatile Terpenes and Terpenoids from Forests for Inflammatory Diseases – 2020
  5.  The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin the Biological Benefits of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain and Inflammation – PubMed – 2020
  6. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015
  7. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System—Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? – 2019
  8. Therapeutic Applications of Terpenes on Inflammatory Diseases – 2021

 

Esssential Oils

 

Essential Oils – Overviews

  1. Essential Oils, Part I Introduction – PubMed – 2016
  2. Essential Oils, Part II General Aspects – PubMed – 2016
  3. Essential Oils, Part III Chemical Composition – PubMed – 2016
  4. Essential Oils, Part IV Contact Allergy – PubMed- 2016
  5. Essential Oils, Part V Peppermint Oil, Lavender Oil, and Lemongrass Oil – PubMed 2016

 

 

Essential Oils – Bearded Irises

  1. Identification of Floral Scent Profiles in Bearded Irises – 2019

 

 

Essential Oils – Bergamot

  1. The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2013
  2. Antinociceptive effect of inhalation of the essential oil of bergamot in mice – 2018
  3. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil Are Insensitive to Flumazenil in Rats – 2019
  4. Bergamot – Natural Medicines – Professional.pdf
  5. Citrus bergamia essential oil – from basic research to clinical application – 2015
  6. Role of 5-HT1A Receptor in the Anxiolytic-Relaxant Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil in Rodent – 2020 Neuropharmacological Properties of the Essential Oil of Bergamot for the Clinical Management of Pain-Related BPSDs – PubMed – 2019
  7. Possible involvement of the peripheral Mu-opioid system in antinociception induced by bergamot essential oil to allodynia after peripheral nerve injury – PubMed – 2018
  8. Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation – PubMed – 2013
  9. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot – PubMed – 2010
  10. Effect of Harvesting Time on Volatile Compounds Composition of Bergamot (Citrus × Bergamia) Essential Oil – 2019
  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Peels of Three Citrus Species – 2020
  12. Chemical_Composition_of_Bergamot_Citrus_Bergamia_Risso_Essential_Oil_Obtained_by_Hydrodistillation – 2010
  13. Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin – Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System – 2019
  14. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain – PubMed – 2016

 

Essential Oils – Plumeria

  1. Constituents of essential oils from the leaf and flower of Plumeria alba grown in Nigeria – PubMed – 2014

 

Individual Terpenes

Terpenes: β-Caryophyllene:

  1. (−)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis – 2017
  2. Antiallodynic effect of β-caryophyllene on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Acute administration of beta-caryophyllene prevents endocannabinoid system activation during transient common carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion – 2018
  4. Antiallodynic effect of β-caryophyllene on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Cannabimimetic phytochemicals in the diet – an evolutionary link to food selection and metabolic stress adaptation? – 2016
  6. The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice – 2012
  7. β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties – 2016
  8. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice – 2014
  9. Toxicological Evaluation of β-Caryophyllene Oil: Subchronic Toxicity in Rats. – PubMed – NCBI 2016
  10. The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic… – PubMed – NCBI – 2014
  11. The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain – 2013
  12. SPC Liposomes as Possible Delivery Systems for Improving Bioavailability of the Natural Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene – 2018
  13. β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARγ Pathway – 2011
  14. Why wild giant pandas frequently roll in horse manure – 2020
  15. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid – 2008
  16. Analgesia mediated by the TRPM8 cold receptor in chronic neuropathic pain. – 2006
  17. The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold – PubMed – 2007
  18. Molecular basis of peripheral innocuous cold sensitivity – 2018
  19. Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception – PubMed – 2013
  20. NON-CANNABIS THERAPY – Cannabinoid Therapy Without Using Cannabis: Direct Effects™ Topical β-Caryophyllene
  21. Beta-caryophyllene enhances wound healing through multiple routes – 2019
  22. Preparation and Characterization of Liposomal β‐Caryophyllene (Rephyll) – 2020

 

Terpenes: Linalool:

  1. GS12-linalool
  2. Linalool – 1997
  3. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled With Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – PubMed – 2020
  4. An olfactory stimulus modifies nighttime sleep in young men and women. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Lavender and sleep – A systematic review of the evidence – 2012
  6. Lavender and the Nervous System – 2013
  7. Effects of odorant administration on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality, post-sleep mood and alertness, and cognitive performance – 2003
  8. In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes. – PubMed – NCBI – 2000
  9. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep – 2016
  10. A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust – 2015
  11. Is Lavender an Anxiolytic Drug? A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials – 2012
  12. Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety – meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials – 2019
  13. Essential oil of lavender in anxiety disorders – Ready for prime time? – 2017
  14. Linalool is a PPAR ligand that reduces plasma TG levels and rewires the hepatic transcriptome and plasma metabolome – 2014
  15. A Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health – Discovering Novel Therapeutics in the Flavours and Fragrances of Cannabis – 2021
  16. The Efficacy of Lavender Aromatherapy in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Ambulatory Surgery Patients Undergoing Procedures in General Otolaryngology – 2017
  17. Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Aroma Massage with Lavender Essential Oil – an Overview – 2020
  18. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant effects of the monoterpene linalool oxide – 2017
  19. Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets – 2017
  20. Linalool Ameliorates Memory Loss and Behavioral Impairment Induced by REM-Sleep Deprivation through the Serotonergic Pathway – 2018
  21. Effects of lavender on anxiety, depression and physiologic parameters – Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – 2021
  22. Lavender and sleep – A systematic review of the evidence – 2012
  23. Lavender and the Nervous System – 2013
  24. A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust – 2015

 

 

Terpenes, Linalool:Silexan

  1. A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomised Study of the Lavender Oil Preparation Silexan in Comparison to Lorazepam for Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 2010
  2. Is Lavender an Anxiolytic Drug? A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials – 2012
  3.  An Orally Administered Lavandula Oil Preparation (Silexan) for Anxiety Disorder and Related Conditions- An Evidence Based Review – 2013
  4. Lavender oil preparation Silexan is effective in generalized anxiety disorder – a randomized, double-blind comparison to placebo and paroxetine – 2014
  5. Silexan in anxiety disorders – Clinical data and pharmacological background – 2017
  6. Effectiveness of Silexan Oral Lavender Essential Oil Compared to Inhaled Lavender Essential Oil Aromatherapy for Sleep in Adults- A Systematic Review – 2018
  7. Silexan in anxiety disorders Clinical data and pharmacological background – PubMed – 2018
  8. Efficacy and safety of lavender essential oil (Silexan) capsules among patients suffering from anxiety disorders – A network meta-analysis – 2019
  9. Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety – meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials – 2019
  10. Therapeutic effects of Silexan on somatic symptoms and physical health in patients with anxiety disorders – A meta- analysis – 2020
  11. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of ‘subsyndromal’ anxiety disorder a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial – PubMed – 2010
  12. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder – PubMed – 2009
  13. No Abuse Potential of Silexan in Healthy Recreational Drug Users – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2021

 

Terpenes – Limonene

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015
  2. Neuroprotective Potential of Limonene and Limonene Containing Natural Products – 2021

 

Terpenes: Myrcene

  1. β-MYRCENE – IARC MONOGRAPHS
  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015
  3. Myrcene—What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent? – 2021

 

Terpenes: Pinene

  1. A Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health – Discovering Novel Therapeutics in the Flavours and Fragrances of Cannabis – 2021

 

 

Medical Marijuana – Product Evaluation

  1. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018
  2. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  3. Cannabinoid, Terpene, and Heavy Metal Analysis of 29 Over-the-Counter Commercial Veterinary Hemp Supplements – 2020

 

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