Terpenes

Linalool

Terpenes are a family of aromatic organic compounds obtained mainly from plants and trees, such as cannabis (marijuana), tea, pine, lavender, thyme and citrus fruits like lemon. They offer a wide range of therapeutic benefits. 

Linalool is abundant in lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), bergamot and sweet basil but can also be found in ylang-ylang, mint, cinnamon and coriander.  With its spicy and floral scents, linalool is also one of the most abundant terpenes in the majority of cannabis strains.

 

Links to other Pertinent Educational Pages:

Links to ALL Marijuana Educational Pages

 

Terpenes:

Terpenes – An Overview

 

Terpenes Therapeutic Benefits

Terpenes and Pain

Terpenes and Anxiety

Terpenes and Inflammation

Terpenes and Insomnia

 

Individual Terpenes:

Terpenes – β-Caryophyllene

Terpenes – Limonene

Terpenes – Linalool

Terpenes – Myrcene

 

 

The medical information on this site is provided as a resource for information only, and is not to be used or relied upon for any diagnostic or treatment purposes and is not intended to create any patient-physician relationship.  Readers are advised to seek professional guidance regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their medical concerns.

 

Key to Links:

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 This page is incomplete and continues to be developed…

 

 

Linalool

Linalool is abundant in in lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), bergamot and sweet basil but can also be found in ylang-ylang, mint, cinnamon and coriander. Essential lavender oil contains 37.3% linalool and 41.6% linalyl acetate but also contains moderate levels of β-caryophyllene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, (E)-beta- ocimene, and lavandulyl acetate. Linalool is frequently used in aromatherapy for anxiety, stress, pain, and to improve sleep. Linalyl acetate, the other primary terpenoid in lavender, hydrolyses to linalool in the stomach.

 

Dietary intake of linalool from natural food sources such as fruits, vegetables, spices and beverages is estimated to be up to 1-5 mg/day.  Linalool occurs in apples, citrus juices, berries, grapes, guava, celery, peas, potatoes, tomatoes, cinnamon, cloves, cassia, cumin, ginger, mustard, nutmeg, pepper, thymus, cheeses, grape wines, butter, milk, rum, cider, tea, passion fruit, olive, mango, beans, coriander and rice.

 

Ingested linalool and limonene have been shown to enhance the microbiota (bacteria in the gut), especially Lactobacillus, in mice, although limonene had the strongest impact. Studies suggest that essential oils may be involved in regulating energy homeostasis by enhancing the microbiota. Recent research has emphasized the importance of a healthy microbiota system for the management of pain and mood disorders including depression.

 

Linalool is one of the most abundant terpenes in the majority of cannabis strains and, together with myrcene, produces that pungent floral and spicy scent that makes cannabis smell the way it does. Some well known marijuana strains with linalool are Amnesia Haze, Special Kush, Lavender, LA Confidential, and OG Shark.

 

Linalool in Bergamot Oil

A  study by Dugo et al. evaluated bergamot oil and found that it contains linalyl acetate (15.6–41.4%), linalool (1.7–26.0%) and limonene (10.5–45.8%) as the major constituents; along with with β-pinene (0.08–11.0%) and γ-terpinene (3.7–11.4%). However, the amount of terpenes found in lavender or bergamot oil can vary greatly based on the origin, latitude, growing year and harvest period.

Linalool is a major and common terpenoid contained in most herbal essential oils and teas, including both green and black teas. Bergamot oil is one of the key flavorings found in Earl Grey tea.

 

Linalool – Therapeutic Benefits

Most studies evaluating linalool’s therapeutic benefits are pre-clinical, laboratory-based or animal-based, with only limited human studies.  Linalool has been proposed to offer benefit for anxiety, sedation and relaxation, pain, arthritis, depression, seizures and insomnia.

 

Linalool – Anxiety, Sedation and Relaxation

Often found in aromatic herbs used in traditional aromatherapy, linalool reduces anxiety and provides sedation and relaxation.  There is evidence that lavender oil, containing linalool, promotes sleep in patients with insomnia by improving sleep efficiency, increasing total sleep time and facilitating vigor upon awakening.  Multiple articles listed below demonstrating linalool’s benefits regarding anxiety and sleep may be downloaded for review.

 

Like pinene, linalool is a monoterpene with a low molecular weight and is highly lipophilic, enabling it to pass the blood brain barrier to exert effects on the central nervous system, including sedation and analgesia.  Evidence suggests that the effectiveness of linalool is equal to commonly prescribed anti-anxiety medications including lorazepam (Ativan) and paroxetine (Paxil)) and often with less side effects. However, additional well-designed clinical trials are required to confirm this.

 

Linalool – Methods of Use for Anxiety, Sedation and Relaxation

Inhalation

Inhalation of lavender oil (predominantly linalool and linalyl acetate) has a long history of traditional use and effectiveness for anxiety and sleep. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that inhaling linalool has anxiolytic properties, possesses stress-relieving effects and improves quality of sleep.

 

Oral Ingestion

Oral intake of linalool, in the form of lavender essential oil (Silexan™) capsules was also demonstrated to be effective for anxiety in a meta-analysis published in 2019. Five studies with a total of 524 participants evaluated oral treatment with Silexan,™ 80 mg and 160 mg dosing. Silexan™ contains primarily linalool (36.8%) and linalyl acetate (34.2%). Minor components of Silexan™ include the monoterpene alcohol lavandulol, its ester lavandulyl acetate, and bicyclic monoterpenoids borneol, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) and camphor. The effectiveness of Silexan™ for anxiety was found to be equivalent to that of paroxetine (Paxil), a prescription SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). Overall, the 160 mg dose of Silexan™ was well tolerated and found to be more effective than the 80 mg dose.

 

Inhalation vs Oral

Unfortunately, a systematic review published in 2017 identified no studies that met the author’s criteria that conclusively established comparative effectiveness of oral Silexan compared to inhaled lavender essential oil as aromatherapy for sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep quality, disturbed sleep or anxiety in adults.

 

Topical Administration

Topical application of linalool is well absorbed. An essential oil of lavender (1500 mg with 24.7% linalool/total 372 mg) was massaged into the skin of a 60 kg man for 10 minutes, resulting in a peak plasma concentration of 100 ng·mL-1 at 19 min, and a half-life of 13.76 min in serum.

 

Linalool – Mechanisms of Action for Anxiety, Sedation and Relaxation

The mechanisms by which linalool impacts anxiety and sleep remains unclear since it does not appear to bind to either of the endogenous cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2 and it has no affinity for the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor. It is believed that the modulation of glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems are the likely mechanisms for the sedative, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties of linalool.

 

 

Linalool – Pain

While linalool has not been as extensively studied regarding its benefit dor pain, linalool has been shown to have analgesic benefits in post-operative pain, nerve pain and inflammatory pain. It appears to be one of the most dominant terpenes found in marijuana strains most helpful for pain.

 

Linalool – Methods of Use for Pain

Inhalation

Inhalation exposure to linalool in animals has been shown to significantly decrease pain response. Additionally, linalool has been associated with decreased morphine opioid use after inhalation in a study of post-operative pain with gastric banding in morbidly obese surgical patients.

 

Oral Ingestion

Oral ingestion of linalool for use in the treatment of painful and inflammatory disorders appears to be limited due to poor oral availability. Interestingly though, oral linalool has been found to be effective for anxiety and relaxation.

 

Topical Use of Linalool for Pain

Topical exposure to linalool has been found to have local anesthetic effects equal to those of procaine and menthol and provides anti-inflammatory and analgesic benefits at high doses in mice. In traditional Chinese medicine, frankincense (Boswellia carterii) is commonly used for topical treatment of pain and inflammation. A study carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of frankincense found that three of its main components, linalool, α-pinene and 1-octanol, showed consistent evidence of  anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

 

Linalool – Mechanisms of Action for Pain

 Linalool’s analgesic effects may be related to reduced peripheral and central nerve excitability. It is believed that linalool’s analgesic benefits are possibly due to inhibition of substance P release or a blocking effect on its receptor neurokinin-1 (NK-1). Findings also suggest that linalool may reduce pain by blocking NMDA receptors.

 

Lavender oil has been found to inhibit the endocannabinoid degradation enzymes FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) and MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase). While FAAH and MAGL can synthesize or degrade endocannabinoids depending on body needs, FAAH inhibition is beneficial in CNS and pain disorders by conserving endocannabinoids and enhancing endocannabinoid signaling including  the endogenous cannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA; also known as anandamide).

 

AEA directly affects specific brain regions related to emotions, behavior planning, and motivation (hippocampus, striatum, and frontal cortex). These effects may contribute to improving the ability of someone to cope with their pain which is an important variable impacting the perceived severity of pain.

 

Linalool – Antioxidant Properties

Linalool has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes due to its potent antioxidant activities. Linalool decrease ROS as well as improve mitochondrial function and morphology through different pathways, directly reducing the cell death rate due to oxidative stress. Studies have shown that α-pinene, β-caryophyllene and linalool up-regulate Nrf2 activity to protect cells from oxidative damage. Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2) is a transcription factor that is involved in cellular responses to oxidative damage and inflammation.

See: Nrf2 Activators

Recent research suggests that linalool may also have activity in triglyceride metabolism to improve dyslipidemia by reducing lipid peroxidation levels and plasma triglyceride concentrations.

 

Linalool – Over-the-Counter (OTC) Products

Lavender oil is available in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) medications directed at treating anxiety and promoting relaxation and calm. As noted above, Silexan™ is a formulation of lavender oil that has been studied and found to be effective for these conditions and can used to supplement marijuana products. Although Silexan™ does not seem to be available directly, it is found in different brands of OTC medications, such as Nature’s Way “CalmAid®” in 80mg softgels to be dosed at 80-160 mg/day. Other available OTC products list “lavender oil, 80mg” but not specifically as Silexan™ and may provide similar benefits.

 

Resources:

National Academy of Sciences

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

 

www.Healer.com

This website appears to be good resource for exploring medical marijuana.

 

References:

   

Terpenes – Overviews

  1. Therapeutic and Medicinal Uses of Terpenes – 2019
  2. Terpenes:Terpenoids in Cannabis – Are They Important? – 2020
  3. Advances in Pharmacological Activities of Terpenoids – 2020
  4. Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant – 2020
  5. The Cannabis Terpenes – 2020
  6. The “Entourage Effect” – Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – 2020
  7. Cannabis Essential Oil – A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects – 2018
  8. A Systematic Review of Essential Oils and the Endocannabinoid System – A Connection Worthy of Further Exploration – 2020
  9. Efficacy of Essential Oils in Pain – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Preclinical Evidence – 2021

 

Terpenes – Aromatherapy

  1. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms – 2017
  2. Corrigendum – A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust -2015
  3. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleepOdors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep
  4. Essential Oils and Animals – Which Essential Oils Are Toxic to Pets?
  5. Essential Oils and Pets
  6. Herbs and Their Uses for Animals – Patchouli and Pets
  7. Reactivating memories during sleep by odors – odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations – 2014
  8. Increasing Explicit Sequence Knowledge by Odor Cueing during Sleep in Men but not Women – 2016
  9. Effects of odorant administration on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality, post-sleep mood and alertness, and cognitive performance – 2003
  10. An Olfactory Stimulus Modifies Nighttime Sleep in Young Men and Women – 2005
  11. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. – PubMed – NCBI
  12. Aromatherapy hand massage for older adults with chronic pain living in long-term care. – PubMed – NCBI
  13. A Systematic Review of Essential Oils and the Endocannabinoid System – A Connection Worthy of Further Exploration – 2020
  14. Human olfactory receptors – novel cellular functions outside of the nose,” – 2017
  15. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues – PubMed – 2017
  16. How does your kidney smell? Emerging roles for olfactory receptors in renal function,” – 2017

 

Terpenes – CB2 Receptor

  1. Cannabinoid-based therapy as a future for joint degeneration. Focus on the role of CB2 receptor in the arthritis progression and pain – an updated review – 2021
  2. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice – 2014
  3. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation – 2016

 

Terpenes – Synergy with Cannabinoids:

  1. Taming THC – potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects – 2011
  2. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Entourage Effect 2.0
  4. Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype – 2018
  5. Terpenoids and Phytocannabinoids Co-Produced in Cannabis Sativa Strains Show Specific Interaction for Cell Cytotoxic Activity – 2019
  6. Absence of Entourage – Terpenoids Commonly Found in Cannabis sativa Do Not Modulate the Functional Activity of Δ9-THC at Human CB1 and CB2 Receptors – 2019
  7. Terpenoids From Cannabis Do Not Mediate an Entourage Effect by Acting at Cannabinoid Receptors – 2020
  8. The “Entourage Effect” – Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – 2020

 

Terpenes – Marijuana Strains

  1. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  2. Terpenoid Chemoprofiles Distinguish Drug-type Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars in Nevada – 2018
  3. Terpenoids and Phytocannabinoids Co-Produced in Cannabis Sativa Strains Show Specific Interaction for Cell Cytotoxic Activity – 2019
  4. Identification of Terpenoid Chemotypes Among High (−)-trans-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol-Producing Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars 0 2017
  5. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018

 

Terpenes – Routes of Use:

  1. The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application – 2020
  2. Antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants – Applications and drug delivery strategies – 2020
  3. Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment – 2018

 

Terpenes – Bioavailability

  1. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Natural Volatile Terpenes in Animals and Humans – 2000
  2. Bioavailability of Bioactive Compounds
  3. SPC Liposomes as Possible Delivery Systems for Improving Bioavailability of the Natural Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene – 2018

 

Terpenes – Arthritis

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015

 

Terpenes – Anxiety

  1. Cannabis and the Anxiety of Fragmentation—A Systems Approach for Finding an Anxiolytic Cannabis Chemotype – 2018
  2. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled With Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – PubMed – 2019
  3. Medicinal cannabis for psychiatric disorders – a clinically-focused systematic review – 2020
  4. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models – 2015
  5. A Systematic Review on the Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy during the First Stage of Labor – 2019
  6. A Systematic Review on the Anxiolytic Effectsof Aromatherapy in People with Anxiety Symptoms – 2011
  7. Anxiolytic Terpenoids and Aromatherapy for Anxiety and Depression – PubMed – 2020
  8. Effect of Aromatherapy on Dental Anxiety Among Orthodontic Patients – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2019
  9. Essential Oils and Their Constituents – An Alternative Source for Novel Antidepressants – 2017
  10. Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases – 2018
  11. Possible Use of Phytochemicals for Recovery from COVID-19-Induced Anosmia and Ageusia – 2021
  12. The calming effect of roasted coffee aroma in patients undergoing dental procedures – 2021
  13. The Effect of Lavender Aroma on Anxiety of Patients Having Bone Marrow Biopsy- 2020
  14. The-Effects-of-Essential-Oils-and-Terpenes-in-Relation-to-Their-Routes-of-Intake-and-Application-2020
  15. Therapeutic Effect and Mechanisms of Essential Oils in Mood Disorders – Interaction between the Nervous and Respiratory Systems – 2021
  16. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil Are Insensitive to Flumazenil in Rats – 2019

 

Terpenes – Infectious Diseases

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oils of Seven Lebanon Species – 2008
  2. Antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants – Applications and drug delivery strategies – 2020
  3. Essential Oils and Coronaviruses – 2020

 

Terpenes – Pain:

  1. Analgesic-like Activity of Essential Oils Constituents – 2011
  2. Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents – An Update – 2017
  3. Medicinal Plants of the Family Lamiaceae in Pain Therapy – A Review – 2018
  4. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils – 2016
  5. Medicinal Plants of the Family Lamiaceae in Pain Therapy – A Review – 2018
  6. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  7. Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant – 2020
  8.  The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin the Biological Benefits of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain and Inflammation – PubMed – 2020
  9. Cannabis-based medicines and the perioperative physician – 2019
  10. Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults – 2018
  11. Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain – An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science – 2018
  12. Role of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis-Mediated Analgesia in Rats – PubMed – 2019
  13. Antinociceptive effect of inhalation of the essential oil of bergamot in mice – 2018
  14. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils – 2016
  15. Analgesic-Like Activity of Essential Oil Constituents – An Update – 2017

 

 

Terpenes – Headaches:

  1.  Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain – An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science – 2018
  2. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018

 

Terpenes – Inflammation:

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015 
  2. Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids – Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer – 2018
  3. Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort – 2018
  4. Therapeutic Potential of Volatile Terpenes and Terpenoids from Forests for Inflammatory Diseases – 2020
  5.  The Molecular Mechanisms That Underpin the Biological Benefits of Full-Spectrum Cannabis Extract in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain and Inflammation – PubMed – 2020
  6. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015
  7. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System—Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? – 2019
  8. Therapeutic Applications of Terpenes on Inflammatory Diseases – 2021

 

Terpenes – Wound Healing:

  1. Beta-caryophyllene enhances wound healing through multiple routes – 2019

 

 

 Individual Sources of Terpenes

 

Terpenes – Bergamot

  1. The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2013
  2. Antinociceptive effect of inhalation of the essential oil of bergamot in mice – 2018
  3. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil Are Insensitive to Flumazenil in Rats – 2019
  4. Bergamot – Natural Medicines – Professional.pdf
  5. Citrus bergamia essential oil – from basic research to clinical application – 2015
  6. Role of 5-HT1A Receptor in the Anxiolytic-Relaxant Effects of Bergamot Essential Oil in Rodent – 2020 Neuropharmacological Properties of the Essential Oil of Bergamot for the Clinical Management of Pain-Related BPSDs – PubMed – 2019
  7. Possible involvement of the peripheral Mu-opioid system in antinociception induced by bergamot essential oil to allodynia after peripheral nerve injury – PubMed – 2018
  8. Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation – PubMed – 2013
  9. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot – PubMed – 2010
  10. Effect of Harvesting Time on Volatile Compounds Composition of Bergamot (Citrus × Bergamia) Essential Oil – 2019
  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Peels of Three Citrus Species – 2020
  12. Chemical_Composition_of_Bergamot_Citrus_Bergamia_Risso_Essential_Oil_Obtained_by_Hydrodistillation – 2010
  13. Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin – Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System – 2019
  14. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain – PubMed – 2016

 

Individual Terpenes

Terpenes: β-Caryophyllene:

  1. (−)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis – 2017
  2. Antiallodynic effect of β-caryophyllene on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. – PubMed – NCBI
  3. Acute administration of beta-caryophyllene prevents endocannabinoid system activation during transient common carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion – 2018
  4. Antiallodynic effect of β-caryophyllene on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Cannabimimetic phytochemicals in the diet – an evolutionary link to food selection and metabolic stress adaptation? – 2016
  6. The anxiolytic-like effect of an essential oil derived from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St. Hil. leaves and its major component, β-caryophyllene, in male mice – 2012
  7. β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties – 2016
  8. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice – 2014
  9. Toxicological Evaluation of β-Caryophyllene Oil: Subchronic Toxicity in Rats. – PubMed – NCBI 2016
  10. The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic… – PubMed – NCBI – 2014
  11. The cannabinoid CB2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain – 2013
  12. SPC Liposomes as Possible Delivery Systems for Improving Bioavailability of the Natural Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene – 2018
  13. β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARγ Pathway – 2011
  14. Why wild giant pandas frequently roll in horse manure – 2020
  15. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid – 2008
  16. Analgesia mediated by the TRPM8 cold receptor in chronic neuropathic pain. – 2006
  17. The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold – PubMed – 2007
  18. Molecular basis of peripheral innocuous cold sensitivity – 2018
  19. Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception – PubMed – 2013
  20. NON-CANNABIS THERAPY – Cannabinoid Therapy Without Using Cannabis: Direct Effects™ Topical β-Caryophyllene

 

Terpenes: Linalool:

  1. GS12-linalool
  2. Linalool – 1997
  3. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled With Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders – PubMed – 2020
  4. An olfactory stimulus modifies nighttime sleep in young men and women. – PubMed – NCBI
  5. Lavender and sleep – A systematic review of the evidence – 2012
  6. Lavender and the Nervous System – 2013
  7. Effects of odorant administration on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality, post-sleep mood and alertness, and cognitive performance – 2003
  8. In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes. – PubMed – NCBI – 2000
  9. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep – 2016
  10. A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust – 2015
  11. Is Lavender an Anxiolytic Drug? A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials – 2012
  12. Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety – meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials – 2019
  13. Essential oil of lavender in anxiety disorders – Ready for prime time? – 2017
  14. Linalool is a PPAR ligand that reduces plasma TG levels and rewires the hepatic transcriptome and plasma metabolome – 2014
  15. A Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health – Discovering Novel Therapeutics in the Flavours and Fragrances of Cannabis – 2021
  16. The Efficacy of Lavender Aromatherapy in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Ambulatory Surgery Patients Undergoing Procedures in General Otolaryngology – 2017
  17. Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Aroma Massage with Lavender Essential Oil – an Overview – 2020
  18. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant effects of the monoterpene linalool oxide – 2017
  19. Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets – 2017
  20. Linalool Ameliorates Memory Loss and Behavioral Impairment Induced by REM-Sleep Deprivation through the Serotonergic Pathway – 2018
  21. Effects of lavender on anxiety, depression and physiologic parameters – Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – 2021
  22. Lavender and sleep – A systematic review of the evidence – 2012
  23. Lavender and the Nervous System – 2013
  24. A question of scent – lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust – 2015

 

 

Terpenes, Linalool:Silexan

  1. A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomised Study of the Lavender Oil Preparation Silexan in Comparison to Lorazepam for Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 2010
  2. Is Lavender an Anxiolytic Drug? A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials – 2012
  3.  An Orally Administered Lavandula Oil Preparation (Silexan) for Anxiety Disorder and Related Conditions- An Evidence Based Review – 2013
  4. Lavender oil preparation Silexan is effective in generalized anxiety disorder – a randomized, double-blind comparison to placebo and paroxetine – 2014
  5. Silexan in anxiety disorders – Clinical data and pharmacological background – 2017
  6. Effectiveness of Silexan Oral Lavender Essential Oil Compared to Inhaled Lavender Essential Oil Aromatherapy for Sleep in Adults- A Systematic Review – 2018
  7. Silexan in anxiety disorders Clinical data and pharmacological background – PubMed – 2018
  8. Efficacy and safety of lavender essential oil (Silexan) capsules among patients suffering from anxiety disorders – A network meta-analysis – 2019
  9. Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety – meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials – 2019
  10. Therapeutic effects of Silexan on somatic symptoms and physical health in patients with anxiety disorders – A meta- analysis – 2020
  11. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of ‘subsyndromal’ anxiety disorder a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial – PubMed – 2010
  12. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder – PubMed – 2009
  13. No Abuse Potential of Silexan in Healthy Recreational Drug Users – A Randomized Controlled Trial – 2021

 

Terpenes – Limonene

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015
  2. Neuroprotective Potential of Limonene and Limonene Containing Natural Products – 2021

 

Terpenes: Myrcene

  1. β-MYRCENE – IARC MONOGRAPHS
  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis. – 2015

 

Terpenes: Pinene

  1. A Review of the Potential Use of Pinene and Linalool as Terpene-Based Medicines for Brain Health – Discovering Novel Therapeutics in the Flavours and Fragrances of Cannabis – 2021

 

 

Medical Marijuana – Product Evaluation

  1. The Cannabinoid Content of Legal Cannabis in Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities and Popular Consumer Products – 2018
  2. Quality Control of Traditional Cannabis Tinctures – Pattern, Markers, and Stability – 2016
  3. Cannabinoid, Terpene, and Heavy Metal Analysis of 29 Over-the-Counter Commercial Veterinary Hemp Supplements – 2020

 

Emphasis on Education

 

Accurate Clinic promotes patient education as the foundation of it’s medical care. In Dr. Ehlenberger’s integrative approach to patient care, including conventional and complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments, he may encourage or provide advice about the use of supplements. However, the specifics of choice of supplement, dosing and duration of treatment should be individualized through discussion with Dr. Ehlenberger. The following information and reference articles are presented to provide the reader with some of the latest research to facilitate evidence-based, informed decisions regarding the use of conventional as well as CAM treatments.

 

For medical-legal reasons, access to these links is limited to patients enrolled in an Accurate Clinic medical program.

 

Should you wish more information regarding any of the subjects listed – or not listed –  here, please contact Dr. Ehlenberger. He has literally thousands of published articles to share on hundreds of topics associated with pain management, weight loss, nutrition, addiction recovery and emergency medicine. It would take years for you to read them, as it did him.

 

For more information, please contact Accurate Clinic.

 

Supplements recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger may be purchased commercially online or at Accurate Clinic.

Please read about our statement regarding the sale of products recommended by Dr. Ehlenberger.

Accurate Supplement Prices