Gabapentin (Neurontin) & Pregabalin (Lyrica)
“Neuropathic” or nerve pain is:
“pain caused by a lesion or a disease of the somatosensory system.”
The somatosensory system is the part of the sensory system concerned with the conscious perception of touch, pressure, pain, temperature, position, movement, and vibration, which arise from the muscles, joints, skin, and fascia.
Central Sensitization is a process of hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli which is a result of chronic pain-induced changes in the spinal cord and brain. It can be an important contributing process to the chronic pain experience.
It is recommended to first read the following sections to become familiarized with some of the terms and concepts related here:
Key to Links:
Grey text – handout
Red text – another page on this website
Blue text – Journal publication
Gabapentin (Neurontin) and Pregabalin (Lyrica)
What kind of medicines are gabapentin (Neuroniin) and pregabalin (Lyrica)?
Sometimes referred to as “gabapentenoids,” these two medications carry many labels because of their multiple benefits. Originally used to suppress seizures, these medications are commonly known as anti-epileptics or anti-seizure medications but these terms are misleading and inadequately describe these medications. Perhaps a more accurate description would be “neuromodulators,” medications that modifiy the activity of nerves or the nervous system.
How do gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica) differ?
While the FDA has approved these medications for separate indications, most physicians prescribe these medications somewhat interchangeably – if one is ineffective or not tolerated, the other may be advised. There is no firm evidence to answer the obvious questions about which patients should have which drug, and in which order the drugs should be used. Sometimes cost can play a role depending on pharmacy or insurance plan. Sometimes a patient may find one of the two medicines only effective for a particular pain such as sciatica and the other medicine only effective for a different pain such as headaches – so they take both medications (although this is unusual). While both medications offer the same potential side effects, individual patients may experience different side effects with each medication. Overall, pregabalin is characterized by higher potency, quicker absorption rates and greater bioavailability levels than gabapentin
The mechanisms of how these two medications work appear to be the same or at least they share significant overlap. In fact, even now, research continues to explore exactly how these medications do work and it is known that different mechanisms of action are responsible for the different clinical effects and benefits.
Both gabapentin and pregabalin are excreted essentially unchanged via the kidney and dose adjustments should be make in the presence of impaired kidney function.
However, there are differences between the two. Pregabalin may offer fewer side effects and only pregabalin is FDA approved for fibromyalgia, though most clinicians find gabapentin to be equally effective for fibromyalgia. Gabapentin is believed to be absorbed in a non-linear fashion, meaning the higher the dose, the smaller the percentage of absorption occurs. This is related to possible transporter overload and can be a limiting factor in determining the most effective dosing schedules. However, a study in 2003 indicated that gabapentin maintained a “reasonably” linear manner relative to dose up to 4800 mg per day. In some cases, the use of a time-release formulation of gabapentin can provided superior results with less side effects. Pregabalin is absorbed linearly and is more rapidly and better absorbed (more bioavailable) and is thought to have fewer side effects than gabapentin.
Gabapentin is not a controlled medication that requires a special license for prescribing whereas pregablin is. Medications are given “controlled” status by the FDA when a medication is considered at risk for abuse. When gabapentin was approved by the FDA, gabapentin did not appear to have abuse potential. However, reports are surfacing that both gabapentin and pregabalin are associated with a low incidence of abuse, particularly in populations of polysubstance and opioid abusers. Both drugs appears to have low addiction potential.
As an older drug, gabapentin has been the focus of much more research than pregabalin so more is known about it. The benefits of gabapentin for opioid tolerance and opioid induced hyperalgesia, for example, are better supported by research than pregablin.
Gabapentin and pregabalin are prescribed (on- and off-label) for the following conditions:
Neuropathic (Nerve) Pain
- Nerve Pain – Burning, electric, stabbing pains such as seen with sciatica, peripheral neuropathy (diabetic or other types), post-herpetic neuralgia (shingles pain), trigeminal neuralgia, carpal tunnel syndrome and fibromyalgia
- Headache prevention
- Reduction of opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH)
- Reduction of peripheral and central sensitization including hyperalgesia and allodynia
Preventing Pain Related to Surgery
- Use of a gabapeninoid before, during or just after surgery to reduce post-operative pain, both acutely and chronically
- Restless Leg Syndrome
- Opioid withdrawal
- Alcohol withdrawal
- Benzodiazepine withdrawal
- Bipolar Disorder
Neuropathic (Nerve) Pain (NP)
The most common reason for prescribing gabapentin and pregabalin is for the management of neuropathic pain (NP). Examples of NP include diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuropathy (PHN), the pain from impinged or irritated nerves in the neck or back pain due to compression from a bulging or herniated disc – such as the shooting pains going down arms or legs (sciatica). Gabapentin and pregabalin are generally considered first-line agents for treating NP but they are only effective in reducing pain severity by 50% or more in about 1/3 of patients.
Another form of gabapentin is Gralise, a time-released version of gabapentin designed to dissolve slowly to allow for enhanced absorption compared with gabapentin immediate-release. FDA–approved only for the treatment of PHN but used off-label for other neuropathic conditions, Gralise time-release offers the advantage for the patient to achieve higher therapeutic blood levels more quickly over 15 days compared with the usual slower dosing commonly employed with short-acting gabapentin. Gralise also offers the advantage of greater tolerability, especially in people >65 y/o.
See: Neuropathic Pain
Chronic Headache Prevention
Gabapentin and pregabalin are very effective at preventing migraine headaches. They are not prescribed for aborting a headache.
Reduction of Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH)
Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH) is discussed elsewhere at greater length but gabentin and possibly pregabalin may be effective in reducing the increased sensitivity to pain that is believed to occur in some cases with use of opioids. This hyperalgesia associated with use of opioids shares mechanisms with, and may accompany, central sensitization.
Reduction of Central Sensitization
The presence of chronic pain gives rise to changes in the nervous system that result in increased sensitivity to pain, including hyperalgesia and allodynia, as well as increased sensitivity to other senses including sensitivity to touch, cold and heat, noxious smells, loud sounds, bright lights and emotions. These sensitivities are the hallmark of fibromyalgia but can be found with interstitial cystitis, chronic migraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome and other conditions associated with chronic pain. Gabapentin and pregabalin are probably the most effective medications available in reducing symptoms arising from central sensitization.
See: Neurobiology of Pain
Reduction in Surgical Pain
A great deal of research is being perfomed in an effort to better understand more about how acute pain becomes chronic. Of particular interest in recent research is exploring ways to reduce the pain associated with surgical procedures, including orthopedic and abdominal surgeries as well as others.
Reduction in Acute Post-Operative Pain
In multiple 2016 reviews of studies evaluating post-operative pain after total knee and total hip arthroplasties (replacements), surgical procedures in which parts of the joints are replaced with artificial parts (prostheses), it was shown that the need for opioids for post-operative pain was reduced when gabapentin was used. The pruritis (itching) associated with the post-operative opioids was also lessened. The dose of gabapentin ranged from 300 mg to 1200 mg before surgery and sometimes right after surgery, though an optimal dose was not identified. Despite the reduction in need for opioids for pain, the pain scores were not significantly different.
A 2011 study evaluating post-operative pain after lumbars discectomies and laminectomies revealed similar results with reductions in post-operative pain, use of opioids and pruritis when gabapentin (1200 mg) and Lyrica (300 mg) were provided in the 24 hours preoperatively.
Additional studies evaluating post-operative pain with abdominal and vaginal hysterectiomies, gall bladder surgery, tonsillectomies and breast surgery also described similar benefts of gabapentin.
Dosing for Post-Operative Pain
The optimal dosages of the two drugs for postoperative pain are still controversial. In postoperative pain studies, gabapentin doses ranged from 300 mg to 1,200 mg, and those for pregabalin ranged from 50 mg to 300 mg. Regardless of their dosages, the adverse effects of both drugs were found to be similar.
Reduction in Chronic Post-Operative Pain
While fewer studies are available, a 2012 review of the literature concluded that perioperative treatment with gabapentin and pregabalin are effective in reducing the incidence of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), defined as pain lasting more than 2 months.
Mechanisms of Surgical Pain
It has been reported that the pain occurring after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is more painful than that of any other orthopedic surgery, including total hip arthroplasty. The mechanism of postoperative pain involves the sensitization of peripheral nociceptive nerve terminals and central neurons. It is thought that sensitization of central neurons is more important than peripheral nerve sensitization.
In the past few decades, there has been a substantial improvement in the understanding of the mechanism of surgical pain. Following surgery, the intense influx of pain signal from tissue trauma can exacerbate pain through central and peripheral sensitization, especially central sensitization, in which the excitability and responsiveness of dorsal horn neurons to pain transmission is enhanced.
(see Central Sensitization).
The results of these changes contribute to abnormal pain responses such as pain sensation with non-painful stimuli (allodynia), enhanced pain responses (hyperalgesia) and spread of hypersensitivity beyond injured tissue. Because some of these modulation processes may turn into modification such as enhancement of gene expression, the pain may persist beyond apparent tissue healing, contributing to chronic postsurgical pain syndromes.
In summary, study findings conclude that in postoperative pain management, gabapentin and pregabalin are effective, although additional research is warranted to confirm appropriate dosing amounts and times. Additional studies are needed to explore the long-term benefits as well. Pregabalin 300 mg day−1 and gabapentin 1,200 mg day−1 showed equivalent analgesic, opioid- sparing and adverse effects as well as patient satisfaction.
Note: In an effort to reduce both acute post-operative pain and the development of chronic post-operative pain, studies are ongoing to identify both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic means of doing so. Pharmacologic agents that are being explored in addition to gabapentin and pregabalin include tramadol, NSAIDs, clonidine, nefopam and orphenadrine. Non-pharmacologic methods include acupuncture, relaxation therapy, music therapy, hypnosis and transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) as part of multi-modal approaches of reducing post-operative pain.
See below for more information/publications
Restless Leg Syndrome and Insomnia
While not explored here, gabapentin and probably pregabalin are helpful in certain sleep disorders. Restless Leg Syndrome often responds well to gabapentin and pregabalin. Gabapentin has also been shown to be helpful in the insomnia associated with tapering down or off benzodiazepines such as Xanax, Valium and Klonopin.
Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndromes
Again, these uses of gabapentin and pregabalin in treating withdrawal syndromes will not be explored here except to note that these medications may help with some of the opioid withdrawal symptoms associated with markedly reducing or discontinuing the use of chronic opioids. These symptoms include hyperalgesia, insomnia, anxiety and nausea. Anecdotal reports indicate gabapentin to offer dramatic relief of opioid withdrawal symptoms in individual cases.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal is associated with the risk of seizures, especially Xanax (alprazolam), gabapentin or pregabalin can be helpful in reducing this risk. Most commonly, benzodiazepine withdrawal is associated with insomnia and increased anxiety, both of which can be reduced with the use of gabapentin or pregabalin.
Gabapentin and pregabalin may be effective for the treatment of anxiety, including the anxiety often associated with chronic pain. Doses of pregabalin totaling up to 450 mg/day with split doses of 150-200 mg are effective and well tolerated. Information regarding the use of these medications for other psychiatric conditions is deferred to other resources.
Dosing – Gabapentin & Lyrica
Gabapentin comes as a capsule, tablet, or liquid. It is usually taken with a full glass of water (8 oz) three times a day and may be taken with or without food. Pregabalin comes only in capsules or liquid and can be taken 2 or 3 times/day.Take the medication at evenly spaced times throughout the day and night; do not let more than 12 hours pass between doses. It may take several weeks before a dose is established that provides relief of symptoms. Be patient and do not give up prematurely! Your doctor will start you on a low dose and gradually increase your dose as needed to treat your condition.
To avoid side effects when you first start these medications, take the medication as follows:
– Start with one tablet/capsule at night only, for 3 nights then
– Add a second tablet/capsule in the morning and take twice daily for 3 days then
– Take one tablet/capsule 3x/daily
Once you are comfortable taking gabapentin/pregabalin one tablet/capsule 3x/day for a week or two, you can gradually work your dosing up to 2 tablet/capsules 3x/day for a week or two. Reassess your benefits at this time – if 2 tablets/capsules 3x/day offers more benefit than 1, consider increasing your dose to 3 tablets/capsules 3x/day for possible further benefit and so on. With gabapentin, if no benefit is recognized at a dose of 900 mg 3x/day, there is little reason to continue additional trials at higher doses.
The usual maximum dose of gabapentin is 1200 mg 3x/day and the usual maximum dose of pregabalin is 200mg 3x/day. With pregabalin, the total daily dose can be divided into twice daily rather than 3x/day if preferred. If you encounter side effects as you increase your doses, drop your dose down to the lower dose that did not give side effects. Do not increase your dose if you are already experiencing side effects at your current dose. The goal is to identify the dose that gives you the maximum benefits with no side effects.
If your doctor tells you to take one-half of a tablet as part of your dose, carefully split the tablet along the score mark. Use the other half-tablet as part of your next dose. Properly dispose of any half-tablets that you have not used within several days of breaking them.
Dosing for Gralise:
Day 1: 300mg
Day 2: 600mg
Day 3-6: 900mg
Day 7-10: 1200mg
Day 11-14: 1500mg
Day 15: 1800mg
Dosing – Kidney Disease (Renal Insufficiency)
Gabapentin (Neurontin) and Pregabalin (Lyrica)
Because gabapentin and pregabalin are not metabolized by the liver and are eliminated solely through the kidney, kidney disease may poses a risk for gabapentin and pregabalin accumulation and toxicity. For example, gabapentin’s half-life is approximately 5-7 hours but in patients with kidney dysfunction that period of time may extend to 132 hours. In patients on dialysis, gabapentin and pregabalin will be filtered out, so supplementary dosing after dialysis may be needed and should be guided by the dialysis specialist. In gabapentinoid toxicity, neurotoxicity can present as dizziness, unsteady gait, nystagmus (abnormal eye movements), tremor, severe muscle spasms, drowsiness, confusion and coma. Your prescribing physician should adjust gabapentin and pregabalin dosing based on level of kidney function as measured by creatinine clearance. If you have any history of kidney problems. be certain to notify your physician.
Do not suddenly stop taking these medications – if you suddenly stop taking gabapentin or pregabalin after being on it for a while, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, difficulty sleeping, nausea, and sweating – however, withdrawal symptoms are very uncommon. To avoid these withdrawal symptoms when you discontinue gabapentin or pregabalin, you should decrease your dose gradually over about a week (unless the problem is an allergic reaction, then immediately stop it).
What should I do if I forget a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
What special precautions should I follow?
* tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to gabapentin/pregabalin or any of the inactive ingredients in the medicine. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.
* tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and non-prescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements and herbal products you are taking or plan to take.
* if you are taking antacids such as Maalox or Mylanta, take them at least 2 hours before you take gabapentin/pregabalin.
* tell your doctor if you have or have ever had seizures or kidney disease.
* tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
* if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking gabapentin/pregabalin.
* gabapentin or pregabalin may make you drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you and remember that alcohol, pain medications and sedatives can add to the drowsiness caused by this medication.
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store the tablets and capsules at room temperature, away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the liquid in the refrigerator. Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.
What side effects can Gabapentin & Lyrica cause?
(Do not be alarmed at the following list – they represent potential side effects, not expected side effects)
Most of these symptoms are also listed for other medications you may already be taking – including narcotic pain medications, and anxiety medications. In most cases these side effects will be avoided by starting at a low dose and increasing the dose slowly. And even if side effects do occur, they will almost always go away when you reduce the dose of the medicine. Statistically, these medications are well tolerated by most patients: less than one out of ten patients discontinue these medications because of intolerable side effects.
If you do experience persistent side effects as you increase your dose, reduce your dose to the previous dose that you tolerated well. After a few days, try increasing the dose again. If you still experience intolerable side effects, return again to the previous dose you tolerated well and stay at that dose until you speak with your doctor again.
Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
Common side effects:
* tiredness or weakness
* dizziness or unsteadiness
Unusual side effects:
* shaking of a part of your body that you cannot control
* double or blurred vision
* memory problems
* strange or unusual thoughts
* unwanted eye movements
* heartburn, nausea, diarrhea or constipation
* dry mouth
* weight gain
* swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
* rash or itching
Gabapentin (Neurontin) or Lyrica (pregabalin) may cause other side effects. Notify your doctor if you have any unusual symptoms while taking this medication. Some symptoms may be serious especially when due to an allergic reaction. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call 911 immediately:
* swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, or extremities
* difficulty swallowing or breathing
* seizures (usually only in people taking gabapentin for seizures who suddenly stop the gabapentin)
In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911. Symptoms of overdose may include:
* double vision
* slurred speech
Neurobiology of the Gabapentenoids
Shared Mechanisms with Opioids
Opiates act by bonding to opioid receptors, opening G protein-coupled potassium channels, and closing voltage-dependent calcium channels, which results in the prevention of the release of excitatory amino acids in the spinal cord which interact with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor. Gabapentin selectively inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels, increases GABA transmission, and modulates excitatory amino acids at N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor sites. Thus opiates and gabapentin have certain shared mechanisms affecting analgesia.
It has also been hypothesized that an increased analgesic benefit of gabapentin and morphine when taken together may occur due to an increase in gabapentin serum concentration that results from the two medications being given together. Although the mechanism(s) by which this may occur is uncertain, it appears that two different sites for this interaction – one at the level of absorption and the other at the level of elimination. Gabapentin’s usefulness in preventing opioid withdrawal is probably due to modulating excitatory amino acids which are increased during withdrawal.
Gabapentin – Overviews
- The Anti-Allodynic Gabapentinoids – Myths, Paradoxes, and Acute Effects – 2016
- Interchangeability of generic topiramate and gabapentin
Gabapentin – Alcohol Withdrawal
Gabapentin – Insomnia
- An Open Pilot Study of Gabapentin vs. Trazodone to Treat Insomnia in Alcoholic Outpatients – 2003
- Pharmacokinetic effects of simultaneous administration of single-dose gabapentin 500 mg and zolpidem tartrate 10 mg in healthy volunteers – 2015
- A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, 28-Day, Polysomnographic Study of Gabapentin in Transient Insomnia Induced by Sleep Phase Advance – 2014
- A Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Dose, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Polysomnographic Study of Gabapentin in Transient Insomnia Induced by Sleep Phase Advance – 2014
- The absorption of gabapentin following high dose escalation. – PubMed – NCBI
- Gabapentin increases slow-wave sleep in normal adults – 2002
- Treatment effects of gabapentin for primary insomnia – 2010
Gabapentin – Dosing in Kidney Disease
Gabapentin – Neurobiology
- Implications and mechanism of action of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. – PubMed – NCBI
- Pain relief by gabapentin and pregabalin via supraspinal mechanisms after peripheral nerve injury. – PubMed – NCBI
- Gabapentin reverses microglial activation in the spinal cord of streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats – 2009
- A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pregabalin and gabapentin. – PubMed – NCBI
Gabapentin – Opioid Induced Hyperalgsia (OIH)
- Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic pain patients and the mitigating effects of gabapentin – 2015
- The median effective dose of ketamine and gabapentin in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rats: an isobolographic analysis of their interaction. – PubMed – NCBI
- Gabapentin improves Cold-pressor Pain Responses in Methadone-maintained Patients – 2013
Gabapentin – Opioid Withdrawal
- Gabapentin Effect on Pain Associated with Heroin Withdrawal in Iranian Crack – 2012
- Gabapentin for Opioid Withdrawal Anecdotal account – Erowid 2009
- Role of gabapentin in preventing fentanyl- and morphine-withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia in rats. – PubMed – NCBI
Gabapentin – Pain
- Antiepileptic drugs for neuropath… [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013] – PubMed – NCBI
- Antidepressants and Antiepileptic Drugs for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain
- Gabapentin and pregabalin for chronic neuropathic and early postsurgical pain: current evidence and future directions. – PubMed – NCBI
- Gabapentin for chronic neuropathi… [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014] – PubMed – NCBI
Anxiety – Gabapentin (Neurontin) & Lyrica (pregabalin)
Anxiety – Lyrica
- Pregabalin in acute treatment of anxious depression – 2013
- Pregabalin in Generalized Anxiety Disorder – A Placebo-Controlled Trial – 2003
- The treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with pregabalin, an atypical anxiolytic – 2007
- Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of BID versus TID dosing. – PubMed – NCBI no higlights
- Pregabalin – A guide to its use in fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorder – 2014
Anxiety – Gabapentin
- Gabapentin – long-term antianxiety and hypnotic effects in psychiatric patients with comorbid anxiety-related disorders – 1998
Neuropathic Pain – Overviews
- What is Neuropathic Pain? UW Health – 2010
- Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Neuropathic Pain – 2011, no highlights
- A Primer on Scientific Evidence and Treatment of Neurogenic Pain
Neuropathic Pain – Central and Peripheral Sensitization
Neuropathic Pain – Treatment Overviews
- Management of Neuropathic Pain
- Pharmacologic Treatments for Neuropathic Pain
- Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain – Revised consensus statement from the Canadian Pain Society – 2014
- Clinical practice guidelines for the management of neuropathic pain – a systematic review -2016
- Pharmacological Treatment Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy – 2015
- Neuropathic pain – mechanisms and their clinical implications – 2014
- Opioids and Neuropathic Pain – 2012
Preventing Pain Related to Surgery – Gabapentin & Pregabalin
- Do surgical patients benefit from perioperative gabapentin:pregabalin? A systematic review of efficacy and safety. – PubMed – NCBI
- Perioperative administration of gabapentin 1,200 mg day−1 and pregabalin 300 mg day−1 for pain following lumbar laminectomy and discectomy – 2011
- Preemptive use of gabapentin in abdominal hysterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
- The Effect of Gabapentin on Acute Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty – 2016
- The prevention of chronic postsurgical pain using gabapentin and pregabalin: a combined systematic review and meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
- The use of gabapentin in the management of postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty – 2016
- The use of gabapentin in the management of postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty – 2016
- Use of gabapentin for perioperative pain control – A meta-analysis – 2007
- The efficacy of gabapentin:pregabalin in improving pain after tonsillectomy: A meta-analysis. – PubMed – NCBI
- Effects of gabapentin on postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy: a double blind randomized clinical trial. – PubMed – NCBI
- Gabapentin and postoperative pain – a systematic review of randomized controlled trials 2006 – PubMed Health
- Preoperative Preemptive Drug Administration for Acute Postoperative Pain – A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis – 2016
- perioperative-pain-management- 2007 pubmed-ncbi
- optimizing-pain-management-to-facilitate-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-pathways 2015 -pubmed-ncbi
Preventing Pain Related to Surgery – other medications
- perioperative-pain-management- 2007 pubmed-ncbi
- optimizing-pain-management-to-facilitate-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-pathways 2015 -pubmed-ncbi
Emphasis on Education
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